The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of trauma on erythrocyte caused by long term in vitro pumping using roller pump. Ten bags of human blood (400 ml each) were provided by a local blood bank and they were divided into two groups with five bags in each group. Each blood bag was subject to pumping in a closed circuit, which was composed of silica gel tubes and a roller pump. Polystan and COBE pumps were used for the two groups, respectively. The blood was pumped for 16 h in vitro. Free hemoglobin (FHb), platelets (PLT), erythrocyte fragility (EF), and morphological analysis of erythrocytes observed under scanning electron microscope were measured to evaluate the impact of trauma on erythrocytes. A small amount of blood was collected for analysis before pumping, at the end of the 4th hour and then every 2 h till the end of the 16th hour. Some blood samples were also collected for electron microscope scanning before pumping and every 4 h during pumping. It was found that FHb and PLT linearly increased with the pumping time. There was a significant correlation between the two parameters (r= 0.7745, p< 0.001). The hemolysis indexes of the two groups were 0.296 and 0.3993 mg/L/h, respectively, with no significant difference. During the pumping process, EF changed slightly. The observation of scanning electron microscopy showed various deformed erythrocytes after pumping, including the distortion of cell membrane and the appearance of echinocytes, which increased with pumping time. This study demonstrated that long term pumping using roller pump not only caused the immediate rupture of red blood cells, i.e. the immediate hemolysis, but also caused sub-trauma to a large number of erythrocytes, which led to the delayed hemolysis. The change of erythrocyte morphology was the basis of the delayed hemolysis.