Amniotic fluid has been recently suggested as an alternative source of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the fate of amniotic fluid-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AF-MSCs) after in vivo transplantation has yet to be determined. In the present study we explored whether human AF-MSCs could survive and migrate following transplantation into the striatum of normal and ischemic rat. We found that the grafted cells could survive and migrate towards multiple brain regions in the normal animals, while they moved towards the injured region in the ischemic rat. Double-immunostaining analyses showed that the implanted human AF-MSCs express markers for immature neurons (Doublecortin) at 10 days, and for astrocytes (GFAP) at 10, 30 and 90 after transplantation. This study provides the first evidence that human amniotic fluid contains cells having the potential to survive and integrate into adult rat brain tissue and, therefore, to function as effective stem cells for therapeutic strategies.