The ultrastructural cytochemistry study and the chemical analysis carried out to examine the fat body of workers of the basal Attini Cyphomyrmex rimosus and Mycetarotes parallelus and the derived Acromyrmex disciger and Atta laevigata revealed very electrondense protein granules of varied sizes and shapes distributed throughout the cytoplasm of parietal and perivisceral trophocytes and oenocytes. Lipids were present in the cytoplasm of trophocytes as very electrondense granules. In M. parallelus, A. disciger, and A. laevigata, lipids were present as droplets. In parietal as well as perivisceral oenocytes, lipid granules were very electrondense. In A. laevigata, lipids were present as droplets. The chemical analysis using gas chromatography showed that the main lipid compounds present in trophocytes and oenocytes were saturated (myristic, palmitic, and stearic) and unsaturated fatty acids (oleic and linoleic). Also, in basal species, lipid compounds consisted of mainly saturated fatty acids, while in derived species saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids were observed.