Studies have shown that polycystin-1, encoded by PKD1, the major ADPKD, may have a central role in regulating both apoptosis and proliferation, which could prevent the malignant transformation of affected cells. However, as a putative tumor suppressor, direct studies on the possibility that polycystin-1 may play a role in cancer cells' biological properties have not yet been reported. We have demonstrated that the apoptosis of cancer cells was induced by overexpression of polycystin-1. After transfection with polycystin-1, three cancer cell lines, HepG2, A549, and SW480, showed significantly increased apoptosis compared with the respective control groups. This was accompanied by cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase, whereas cell proliferation was not significantly affected. Overexpression of polycystin-1 induces apoptosis in cancer cells, at least partially, through Wnt and a caspase-dependent pathway.