Abnormal fluid accumulation in tissues, including the life-threatening cerebral and pulmonary edema, is a severe consequence of bacteria infection. Chlamydia (C.) trachomatis is an obligate intracellular gram-negative human pathogen responsible for a spectrum of diseases, causing tissue fluid accumulation and edema in various organs. However, the underlying mechanism for tissue fluid secretion induced by C. trachomatis and most of other infectious pathogens is not known. Here, we report that in mice C. trachomatis infection models, the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP activated chloride channel, is up regulated together with increased cytokine release and tissue fluid accumulation that can be reversed by treatment with antibiotic specific for C. trachomatis and CFTR channel blocker. However, C. trachomatis infection cannot induce tissue edema in CFTR tm1Unc mutant mice. Administration of exogenous IL-1β to mice mimics the C. trachomatis infection-induced CFTR upregulation, enhanced CFTR channel activity and fluid accumulation, further confirming the involvement of CFTR in infection-induced tissue fluid secretion.