A great effort has recently been made to obtain human stem cells able to differentiate into cholinergic neurons, as a number of diseases are associated to the cholinergic neuron loss, degeneration or incorrect function (Alzheimer's disease and motor neuron disease). A stem cell population (i.e. pre-adipocytes) is present in the adipose stromal compartment. Pre-adipocytes, like the mesodermic derivative cells, retain high plasticity and potentiality to convert in vitro from one phenotype into many others, and they can be isolated from adult adipose tissue. Pre-adipocytes committed in vitro to neural differentiation were followed up to the acquisition of neural morphology. Acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase are expressed from the native cell stage, with different localisations and roles during neural commitment. Western blots show the beginning of a new synthesis of these enzymes at 4 weeks of culture of neurogenic pre-adipocytes, in parallel with neural morphology. The passage of the choline-acetyltransferase immunoreactivity from cytoplasmic to membrane localisation shows the possible onset of catalytic activity and the histochemical reaction confirms the activity of acetylcholinesterase. This explains the possibility of obtaining cholinergic-like phenotype from pre-adipocytes.