The controversial effect of autologous serum (AS) on human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) was studied in rat MSC culture. Rat bone marrow cells were plated in a medium containing either FBS (fetal bovine serum) or AS were cultured to passage 3, during which the population doubling number (PDN) of both cultures were measured and compared statistically. The number of viable cells, the cell colonogic activity, and cell growth rate were also compared. In addition, mineralization in the osteogenic cultures from each system was measured. Our data indicated that AS enriched medium provided a microenvironment in which growth rate as well as bone differentiation of the isolated MSCs were significantly higher than in FBS enriched medium.