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Keywords:

  • CJX1;
  • P-glycoprotein;
  • Multidrug resistance;
  • ATPase;
  • Synergistic interaction

Abstract

Our aim has been to elucidate the possible mechanism of CJX1, an amlodipine derivative, in the modulation of P-gp function by determining its effect on P-gp ATPase activity. Basal P-gp ATPase activity was increased by CJX1 with half-maximal activity concentration (Km) of 8.6 ± 1.4 μM. Kinetic analysis indicated a non-competitive inhibition of Verapamil (Ver)-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity by CJX1 and competitive inhibition of CJX1-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity by tetrandrine (Tet). The effect of CsA on CJX1-stimulated and Ver-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity was non-competitive and competitive inhibition, respectively. These findings implying that CJX1 and Tet can bind P-gp either on overlapping sites or distinct but interacting sites, while CJX1 and Ver as well as CsA can bind P-gp on separated sites in K562/DOX cells. Furthermore, the combined effect of CJX1 and Ver has been evaluated isobolographically in numerous fixed-ratio combinations of 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, 1:10 in K562/DOX cells. The results show that mixtures of both drugs at these fixed-ratios exerted synergistic interactions, indicating that when the two reverses that bind P-gp on separated sites are combined, each can contribute to the overall interaction with P-gp, leading to the greater effect than that by either agent alone.