• miRNA;
  • Cerebral cortex;
  • Frontal cortex;
  • Orofacial pain;
  • Inflammation;
  • Nociception;
  • Antinociception;
  • Neuroinflammation;
  • Neutrophils


Activation of the prefrontal cortex occurs during acute and chronic pain and models of experimental hyperalgesia. The present study was carried out to determine possible miRNA changes in the prefrontal cortex, after inflammatory pain induced by facial carrageenan injection in mice. miRNA microarray analyses showed significantly increased levels of miR-155 and miR-223 in the prefrontal cortex of carrageenan-injected mice. The changes were verified by real-time RT-PCR, and shown to occur bilaterally. The potential targets of the two miRNAs were predicted, and changes in two of the miRNA targets, c/ebp Beta and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (GCSF) verified by real-time RT-PCR. Significantly downregulated c/ebp Beta but upregulated GCSF, accompanied by increased immunolabeling with an antibody to myeloperoxidase were found in the prefrontal cortex of facial carrageenan treated mice. It is postulated that this could lead to increased inflammation and activation of the prefrontal cortex. Further studies are necessary to determine if specific miRNAs could be useful as therapeutic molecules for pain.