Inflammatory and immune responses following nerve injury have been shown to play an important role in neuropathic pain. Lipoxins are endogenous lipoxygenase-derived eicosanoids performing protective roles in a range of pathophysiologic processes. Here, we examined the effects of intrathecal lipoxinA4 (LXA4) on NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6) expression in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) following chronic compression of DRG (CCD), a model of neuropathic pain. Daily intrathecal injection of vehicle or LXA4 (10 ng or 100 ng) was performed for three successive days post-CCD. CCD induced both mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, and increased the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and NF-κB. Intrathecal injection of LXA4 prevented the development of neuropathic pain and inhibited NF-κB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine upregulation in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, we have shown the strong protective effect of intrathecal LXA4 on the development of nociceptive behaviors induced by CCD and that these effects might be associated with its anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution properties.