• Imaging;
  • Chronic pain;
  • Interventional procedures;
  • MRI;
  • Ultrasonography;
  • Fluoroscopy;
  • CT scan


Image-guided interventional pain procedures are one of the keystones of pain medicine. The choice of the most appropriate imaging technique is pivotal to ensure both technique's success and patients safety. Aim of this review is to present and discuss published evidence on the best imaging guidance technology for those procedures where more than one imaging option is available. Peer reviewed published evidence on the use of fluoroscopy, ultrasound, and computer tomography to perform epidural injections, facet-joints injections, medial branch RF denervations and stellate ganglion block will be presented, and advantages and disadvantages for each technique will be discussed.

Future trends in the field will be also briefly explored, updating the reader on last application of epiduroscopy, magnetic resonance, electro-magnetic navigation and O-arm technology in the field of pain medicine.