• [1]
    Mackie, R.I., Sghir, A., Gaskins, H.R. (1999) Developmental microbial ecology of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69, 10351045.
  • [2]
    Cebra, J.J. (1999) Influences of microbiota on intestinal immune system development. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69, 10461051.
  • [3]
    Rotimi, V.O., Duerden, B.I. (1981) The development of the bacterial flora in normal neonates. J. Med. Microbiol. 14, 5162.
  • [4]
    Harmsen, H.J., Wildeboer-Veloo, A.C., Raangs, G.C., Wagendorp, A.A., Klijn, N., Bindels, J.G., Welling, G.W. (2000) Analysis of intestinal flora development in breast-fed and formula-fed infants by using molecular identification and detection methods. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 30, 6167.
  • [5]
    Kalliomaki, M., Kirjavainen, P., Eerola, E., Kero, P., Salminen, S., Isolauri, E. (2001) Distinct patterns of neonatal gut microflora in infants in whom atopy was and was not developing. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 107, 129134.
  • [6]
    Benno, Y., Mitsuoka, T. (1986) Development of intestinal microflora in humans and animals. Bifidobateria Microflora 5, 1325.
  • [7]
    Matsuki, T., Watanabe, K., Tanaka, R., Fukuda, M., Oyaizu, H. (1999) Distribution of bifidobacterial species in human intestinal microflora examined with 16S rRNA-gene- targeted species-specific primers. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 65, 45064512.
  • [8]
    Mackie, R.I., Sghir, A., Gaskins, H.R. (1999) Developmental microbial ecology of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 69, 10351045.
  • [9]
    Mitsuoka, T. (1982) Recent trents in research on intestinal flora. Bifidobacteria Microflora 1, 324.
  • [10]
    Boehm, G., Lidestri, M., Casetta, P., Jelinek, J., Negretti, F., Stahl, B., Marini, A. (2002) Supplementation of a bovine formula with an oligosaccharide mixture increases counts of faecal bifidobacteria in preterm infants. Arch. Dis. Child. Fetal Neonatal Ed. 86, 178181.
  • [11]
    Isolauri, E., Rautava, S., Kalliomaki, M., Kirjavainen, P., Salminen, S. (2002) Role of probiotics in food hypersensitivity. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 2, 263271.
  • [12]
    Gibson, G.R., Roberfroid, M.B. (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J. Nutr. 125, 14011412.
  • [13]
    Dai, D., Walker, W.A. (1999) Protective nutrients and bacterial colonization in the immature human gut. Adv. Pediatr. 46, 353382.
  • [14]
    Hanifin, J.M. (1991) Atopic dermatitis in infants and children. Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 38, 763789.
  • [15]
    Isolauri, E., Turjanmaa, K. (1996) Combined skin prick and patch testing enhances identification of food allergy in infants with atopic dermatitis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 97, 915.
  • [16]
    Langendijk, P.S., Schut, F., Jansen, G.J., Raangs, G.C., Kamphuis, G.R., Wilkinson, M.H.F., Welling, G.W. (1995) Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of Bifidobacterium spp. with genus-specific 16S rRNA-targeted probes and its application in fecal samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61, 30693075.
  • [17]
    Kirjavainen, P.V., Arvola, T., Salminen, S.J., Isolauri, E. (2002) Aberrant composition of gut microbiota of allergic infants: a target of bifidobacterial therapy at weaning Gut 51, 5155.
  • [18]
    Porter, K., Feig, Y.S. (1980) The use of DAPI for identifying and counting aquatic microflora. Limnol. Oceanogr. 25, 943948.
  • [19]
    Ventura, M., Zink, R. (2002) Rapid identification, differentiation, and proposed new taxonomic classification of Bifidobacterium lactis. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 64296434.
  • [20]
    Sakata, S., Kitahara, M., Sakamoto, M., Hayashi, H., Fukuyama, M., Benno, Y. (2002) Unification of Bifidobacterium infantis and Bifidobacterium suis as Bifidobacterium longum. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbial. 52, 19451951.
  • [21]
    Altschul, S.F., Madden, T.L., Schäffer, A.A., Zhang, J., Zhang, Z., Miller, W., Lipman, D.J. (1997) Gapped BLAST and PSI-BLAST: a new generation of protein database search programs. Nucl. Acids Res. 25, 33893402.
  • [22]
    Cole, J.R., Chai, B., Marsh, T.L., Farris, R.J., Wang, Q., Kulam, S.A., Chandra, S., McGarrell, D.M., Schmidt, T.M., Garrity, G.M., Tiedje, J.M. (2003) The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP-II): previewing a new autoaligner that allows regular updates and the new prokaryotic taxonomy. Nucl. Acids Res. 31, 442443.
  • [23]
    Gueimonde, M., Tolkko, S., Korpimaki, T., Salminen, S. (2004) A new real-time quantitative PCR procedure of quantification of Bifidobacterium in human fecal samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70, 41654169.
  • [24]
    Majamaa, H., Isolauri, E., Saxelin, M., Vesikari, T. (1995) Lactic acid bacteria in the treatment of acute rotavirus gastroenteritis. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 20, 333338.
  • [25]
    Gronlund, M.M., Nuutila, J., Pelto, L., Lilius, E.M., Isolauri, E., Salminen, S., Kero, P., Lehtonen, O.P. (1999) Mode of delivery directs the phagocyte functions of infants for the first 6 months of life. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 116, 521526.
  • [26]
    Sullivan, A., Edlund, C., Nord, C.E. (2001) Effect of antimicrobial agents on the ecological balance of human microflora. Lancet Infect. Dis. 1, 101114.
  • [27]
    Mutanen, M., Pajari, A-M., Oikarinen, S.I. (2000) Beef induces and rye bran prevents the formation of intestinal polyps in Apc(Min) mice: relation to beta-catenin and PKC isozymes. Carcinogenesis 21, 11671173.
  • [28]
    He, F., Ouwehand, A., Isolauri, E., Hashimoto, H., Benno, Y., Salminen, S. (2000) Comparison of mucosal adhesion and species identification of bifidobacteria isolated from healthy and allergic infants. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 1285, 15.
  • [29]
    Favier, C.F., Vaughan, E.E., De Vos, W.M., Akkermans, A.D.L. (2002) Molecular monitoring of succession of bacterial communities in human neonates. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68, 219226.