• [1]
    Von Mutius, E. (1998) The raising trends in asthma and allergic disease. Clin. Exp. Allergy 28, 4549.
  • [2]
    Lee, S.I., Shin, M.H., Lee, H.B., Lee, J.S., Son, B.K., Koh, Y.Y., Kim, K.E., Ahn, Y.O. (2001) Prevalences of symptoms of Asthma and other allergic diseases in Korean children: a nationwide questionnaire survey. J. Korean Med. Sci. 16, 155164.
  • [3]
    Ogura, Y., Ogura, H., Zusi, N. (2001) The incidence of food allergy in atopic dermatitis. Arerugi 50, 621628.
  • [4]
    Aba-Alkhail, B.A., Ei-Gamal, F.M. (2000) Prevalence of food allergy in asthmatic patients. Saudi Med. J. 21, 8187.
  • [5]
    Eder, W., von Mutius, E. (2004) Hygiene hypothesis and endotoxin: what is the evidence. Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 4, 113117.
  • [6]
    Liu, A.H., Mruphy, J.R. (2003) Hygiene hypothesis: fact or fiction J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111, 471474.
  • [7]
    Herz, U., Lacy, P., Renz, H., Erb, K. (2000) The influence of infections on the development and severity of allergic disorders. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 12, 632640.
  • [8]
    Kim, D.S., Darke-Lee, A.B. (2003) Infection, allergy and the hygiene hypothesis: historical perspective. J. Laryngol. Otol. 117, 946950.
  • [9]
    Bjorksten, B., Sepp, E., Julge, K., Voor, T., Mikelsaar, M. (2001) Allergy development and the intestinal microflora during the first year of life. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 108, 516520.
  • [10]
    Fuller, R. (1989) Probiotics in man and animals. J. Appl. Bacteriol. 66, 365378.
  • [11]
    Matsuzaki, T., Yamazaki, R., Hashimoto, S., Yokokura, T. (1998) The effect of oral feeding of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota on immunoglobulin E production in mice. J. Dairy Sci. 81, 4853.
  • [12]
    Martinez, F.D., Holt, P.G. (1999) Role of microbial burden in aetiology of allergy and asthma. Lancet 354, 1215.
  • [13]
    Shida, K., Makino, K., Morishita, A., Takamizawa, K., Hachimura, S., Ametani, A., Sato, T., Kumagai, Y., Habu, S., Kaminogawa, S. (1998) Lactobacillus casei inhibits antigen induced IgE secretion through regulation of cytokine production in murine splenocyte cultures. Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol. 115, 278287.
  • [14]
    Isolauri, E., Arvola, T., Sütas, Y., Salminen, S. (2000) Probiotics in the management of atopic eczema. Clin. Exp. Allergy 30, 16051610.
  • [15]
    Sanfilippo, L., Li, C.K., Seth, R., Balwin, T.J., Menozzi, M.G., Mahida, Y.R. (2000) Bacteroides fragilis enterotoxin induces the expression of IL-8 and transforming growth factor-beta TGF-beta by human colonic epitherial cells. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 119, 456463.
  • [16]
    Hansen, G., McIntire, J.J., Yeung, V.P., Berry, G., Thorbecke, G.J., Chen, L., DeKruyff, R.H., Umetsu, D.T. (2000) CD4(+) T helper cells engineered to produce latent TGF-beta 1 reverse allergen induced airway hyper reactivity and inflammation. J. Clin. Invest. 105, 6170.
  • [17]
    Kato, I., Yokokura, T., Mutai, M. (1984) Augmentation of mouse natural killer cell activity by Lactobacillus casei and its surface antigens. Microbiol. Immunol. 27, 209217.
  • [18]
    Kato, I., Yokokura, T., Mutai, M. (1988) Correlation between increase in Ia-bearing macrophages and induction of T-cell dependent antitumor activity by Lactobacillus casei in mice. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 26, 215221.
  • [19]
    Park, S.Y., Ji, G.E., Ko, Y.T., Jung, H.K., Ustunol, Z., Pestka, J.J. (1999) Potentiation of hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and cytokine production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells exposed to human and commercial isolates of Bifidobacterium. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 46, 231241.
  • [20]
    You, H.J., Oh, D.K. (2004) Anticancerogenic effect of a novel chiro-inositol containing polysaccharide from Bifidobacterium bifidum BGN4. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 240, 131136.
  • [21]
    Kim, I.H., Park, M.S., Ji, G.E. (2003) Characterization of adhesion of Bifidobacterium sp. BGN4 to human enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 13, 276281.
  • [22]
    Marinaro, M., Boyaka, P.N., Finkelman, F.D., Kiyono, H., Raymond, J.J., McGhee, J.R. (1997) Oral but parenteral interleukin-12 redirects T helper 2-type responses to an oral vaccine without altering mucosal IgA responses. J. Exp. Med. 185, 415427.
  • [23]
    Li, X.M., Serebrisky, D., Lee, S.Y., Huang, C.K., Bardina, L., Schofield, B.H., Stanley, J.S., Burks, A.W., Bannon, G.A., Sampson, H.A. (2000) A murine model of peanut anaphylaxis: T and B cell responses to a major peanut allergen mimic human responses. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 106, 150158.
  • [24]
    Knippels, M.J., van Wijk, F., Penninks, A.H. (2004) Food allergy: what do we learn from animal model Curr. Opin. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 4, 205209.
  • [25]
    Hessle, C., Andersson, B., Word, A. (2000) Gram-positive bacteria are potent inducers of monocytic interlukin-12 (IL-12) while Gram-negative bacteria preferentially stimulate IL-12 production. Infect. Immun. 68, 35813586.
  • [26]
    Lycke, N., Severinson, E., Strober, W. (1990) Cholera toxin acts synergistically with IL-4 to promote IgG1 switch differentiations. J. Immunol. 145, 33163324.
  • [27]
    Park, J.H., Gold, D.R., Spiegelman, D.L., Burge, H.A., Milton, D.K. (2001) House dust endotoxin and wheeze in the first year of life. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care. Med. 163, 322328.
  • [28]
    Dabbagh, K., Dahl, M.E., Steprick-Biek, P., Lewis, D.B. (2002) Toll-like receptor 4 is required for optimal development of Th2 immune responses: role of dendritic cells. J. Immunol. 168, 42544260.