• [1]
    Costerton, J.W., Stewart, P.S., Greenberg, E.P. (1999) Bacterial biofilms: a common cause of persistent infections. Science 284, 13181322.
  • [2]
    Jishage, M., Iwata, A., Ueda, S., Ishihama, A. (1996) Regulation of RNA polymerase sigma subunit synthesis in Escherichia coli: intracellular levels of four species of sigma subunit under various growth conditions. J. Bacteriol. 178, 54475451.
  • [3]
    Hengge-Aronis, R. (1996) Back to log phase: σS as a global regulator in the osmotic control of gene expression in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 21, 887893.
  • [4]
    Spoering, A.L., Lewis, K. (2001) Biofilms and planktonic cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa have similar resistance to killing by antimicrobials. J. Bacteriol. 183, 67466751.
  • [5]
    Lewis, K. (2001) Riddle of biofilm resistance. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 45, 9991007.
  • [6]
    Gilbert, P., Collier, P.J., Brown, M.R.W. (1990) Influence of growth rate on susceptibility to antimicrobial agents: biofilms, cell cycle, dormancy, and stringent response. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 34, 18651868.
  • [7]
    Loewen, P.C., Hengge-Aronis, R. (1994) The role of the sigma factor σS (KatF) in bacterial global regulation. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 48, 5380.
  • [8]
    Ishihama, A. (2000) Functional modulation of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54, 499518.
  • [9]
    Jishage, M., Ishihama, A. (1995) Regulation of RNA polymerase sigma subunit synthesis in Escherichia coli: intracellular levels of σ70 and σ38. J. Bacteriol. 177, 68326835.
  • [10]
    Muffler, A., Traulsen, D.D., Lange, R., Hengge-Aronis, R. (1996) Posttranscriptional osmotic regulation of the σS subunit of RNA polymerase in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 178, 16071613.
  • [11]
    Tanaka, K., Takahashi, H. (1994) Cloning, analysis and expression of an rpoS homologue gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Gene 150, 8185.
  • [12]
    Suh, S.J., Silo-Suh, L., Woods, D.E., Hassett, D.J., West, S.E., Ohman, D.E. (1999) Effect of rpoS mutation on the stress response and expression of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J. Bacteriol. 181, 38903897.
  • [13]
    Whiteley, M., Bangera, M.G., Bumgarner, R.E., Parsek, M.R., Teitzel, G.M., Lory, S., Greenberg, E.P. (2001) Gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms. Nature 413, 860864.
  • [14]
    Schuster, M., Hawkins, A.C., Harwood, C.S., Greenberg, E.P. (2004) The Pseudomonas aeruginosa RpoS regulon and its relationship to quorum sensing. Mol. Microbiol. 51, 973985.
  • [15]
    Tomasz, A., Albino, A., Zanati, E. (1970) Multiple antibiotic resistance in a bacterium with suppressed autolytic system. Nature 227, 138140.
  • [16]
    Handwerger, S., Tomasz, A. (1985) Antibiotic tolerance among clinical isolates of bacteria. Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 23, 349380.
  • [17]
    Falla, T.J., Chopra, I. (1998) Joint tolerance to β-lactam and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in Escherichia coli results from overexpression of hipA. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 42, 32823284.
  • [18]
    Miyake, Y., Fujiwara, S., Usui, T., Suginaka, H. (1992) Simple method for measuring the antibiotic concentration required to kill adherent bacteria. Chemotherapy 38, 286290.
  • [19]
    Taniguchi, K., Ono, T., Murakami, K., Viducic, D., Kayama, S., Hirota, K., Nemoto, K., Miyake, Y. (2003) A novel gene of Pseudomonas aeruginosa that suppresses tolerance to carbapenems. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 47, 29973001.
  • [20]
    Sambrook, J., Fritsch, E.F., Maniatis, T. (1989) Molecular Cloning; A Laboratory Manual, second ed. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.
  • [21]
    Schweizer, H.P. (1993) Small broad-host-range gentamicin resistance gene cassettes for site-specific insertion and deletion mutagenesis. Bio Techniques 15, 831834.
  • [22]
    Schweizer, H.P. (1992) Allelic exchange in Pseudomonas aeruginosa using novel ColE1-type vectors and a family of cassettes containing a portable oriT and the counter-selectable Bacillus subtilis sacB marker. Mol. Microbiol. 6, 11951204.
  • [23]
    Simon, R., Priefer, U., Puhler, A. (1983) A broad host range mobilization system for in vivo genetic engineering transposon mutagenesis in gram negative bacteria. Bio/Technology 1, 784791.
  • [24]
    Simon, R., O'Connell, M., Labes, M., Pühler, A. (1986) Plasmid vectors for the genetic analysis and manipulation of rhizobia and other gram-negative bacteria. Methods Enzymol. 118, 640659.
  • [25]
    Yang, Y., Bhachech, N., Bush, K. (1995) Biochemical comparison of imipenem, meropenem and biapenem: permeability, binding to penicillin-binding proteins, and stability to hydrolysis by β-lactamases. J. Antimicrob. Cemother. 35, 7584.
  • [26]
    Brown, L., Gentry, D., Elliott, T., Cashel, M. (2002) DksA affects ppGpp induction of RpoS at a translational level. J. Bacteriol. 184, 44554465.
  • [27]
    Korch, S.B., Henderson, T.A., Hill, T.M. (2003) Characterization of the hipA7 allele of Escherichia coli and evidence that high persistence is governed by (p)ppGpp synthesis. Mol. Microbiol. 50, 11991213.
  • [28]
    Levine, C., Hiasa, H., and Marians, K.L. (1998) DNA gyrase and topoisomerase. IV: biochemical activities, physiological roles during chromosome replication, and drug sensitivities, Biochem. Biophys. Acta 1400, 29–43
  • [29]
    Higgins, C.F., Dorman, C.J., Stirling, D.A., Waddell, L., Booth, I.R., May, G., Bremer, E. (1988) A physiological role for DNA supercoiling in the osmotic regulation of gene expression in S. typhimurium and E. coli. Cell 52, 569584.
  • [30]
    Kusano, S., Ding, Q., Fujita, N., Ishihama, A. (1996) Promoter selectivity of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase 70 and 38 holoenzymes. J. Biol. Chem. 271, 19982004.
  • [31]
    Kaldalu, N., Mei, R., Lewis, K. (2004) Killing by ampicillin and ofloxacin induces overlapping changes in Escherichia coli transcription profile. Antimicrob. Agents. Chemother. 48, 890896.
  • [32]
    Jorgensen, F., Bally, M., Chapon-Herve, V., Michel, G., Lazdunski, A., Williams, P., Stewart, G.S. (1999) RpoS-dependent stress tolerance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Microbiology 145, 835844.
  • [33]
    Cochran, W.L., Suh, S.J., McFeters, G.A., Stewart, P.S. (2000) Role of RpoS and AlgT in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm resistance to hydrogen peroxide and monochloramine. J. Appl. Microbiol. 88, 546553.
  • [34]
    Martinez-Bueno, M.A., Tobes, R., Rey, M., Romas, J.L. (2002) Detection of multiple extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors in the genome of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 and their counterparts in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Environ. Microbiol. 4, 842855.