• [1]
    Boddi, S., Comparini, C., Calamassi, R., Pazzagli, L., Cappugi, G., Scala, A. (2004) Cerato-platanin protein is located in the cell walls of ascospores, conidia and hyphae of Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 233, 341346.
  • [2]
    Kazmierczak, P., Kim, D.H., Turina, M., van Alfen, N.K. (2005) A Hydrophobin of the chestnut blight fungus, Cryphonectria parasitica, is required for stromal pustule eruption. Eukaryot. Cell 4, 931936.
  • [3]
    Talbot, N.J., Ebbole, D.J., Hamer, J.E. (1993) Identification and characterization of MPG1, a gene involved in pathogenicity from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Plant Cell 5, 15751590.
  • [4]
    Tucker, S.L., Thornton, C.R., Tasker, K., Jacob, C., Giles, G., Egan, M., Talbot, N.J. (2004) A fungal metallothionein is required for pathogenicity of Magnaporthe grisea. Plant Cell 16, 15751588.
  • [5]
    Tyler, B.M. (2002) Molecular basis of recognition between phytophthora pathogens and their hosts. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 40, 137167.
  • [6]
    D'silva, I., Heath, M.C. (1997) Purification and characterization of two novel hypersensitive response-inducing specific elicitors produced by the cowpea rust fungus. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 39243927.
  • [7]
    Joosten, M.H.A.J., Cozijnsen, T.J., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1994) Host resistance to a fungal tomato pathogen lost by a single base-pair change in an avirulence gene. Nature 367, 384386.
  • [8]
    Schottens-Toma, I.M.J., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1988) Purification and primary structure of a necrosis-inducing peptide form the apoplastic fluids of tomato infected with Cladosporum fulvum (syn. Fulvia fulva). Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 33, 5967.
  • [9]
    Westerink, N., Brandwagt, B.F., De Wit, P.J., Joosten, M.H. (2004) Cladosporium fulvum circumvents the second functional resistance gene homologue at the Cf-4 locus (Hcr9-4E) by secretion of a stable avr4E isoform. Mol. Microbiol. 54, 533545.
  • [10]
    Ballance, G.M., Lamari, L., Bernier, C.C. (1989) Purification and characterization of a host-selective necrosis toxin from Pyrenophora-tritici-repentis. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 35, 203213.
  • [11]
    Rohe, M., Gierlich, A., Hermann, H., Hahn, M., Schmidt, B., Rosahl, S., Knogge, W. (1995) The race-specific elicitor, NIP1, from the barley pathogen, Rhynchosporium secalis, determines avirulence on host plants of the Rrs1 resistance genotype. EMBO J. 14, 41684177.
  • [12]
    Strelkov, S.E., Lamari, L., Ballance, G.M. (1999) Characterization of a host-specific protein toxin (Ptr ToxB) from Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 12, 728732.
  • [13]
    Tuori, R.P., Wolpert, T.J., Ciuffetti, L.M. (1995) Purification and immunological characterization of toxic components from cultures of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 8, 4148.
  • [14]
    Lamari, L., Ballance, G.M., Orolaza, N.P., Kowatsch, R. (1995) In planta production and antibody neutralization of the Ptr necrosis toxin from Pyrenophora-tritici-repentis. Phytopathology 85, 333338.
  • [15]
    Basse, C.W., Kolb, S., Kahmann, R. (2002) A maize-specifically expressed gene cluster in Ustilago maydis. Mol. Microbiol. 43, 7593.
  • [16]
    Basse, C.W., Stumpferl, S., Kahmann, R. (2000) Characterization of a Ustilago maydis gene specifically induced during the biotrophic phase: evidence for negative as well as positive regulation. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20, 329339.
  • [17]
    Stephenson, S., Hatfield, J., Rusu, A.G., Maclean, D.J., Manners, J.M. (2000) CgDN3: an essential pathogenicity gene of Colletotrichum gloeosprioides necessary to avert a hypersensitive-like response in the host Stylosanthes guianensis. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 13, 929941.
  • [18]
    Takken, F.L.W., Luderer, R., Gabriels, S.H., Westerink, N., Lu, R., De Wit, P.J.G.M., Joosten, M.H.A.J. (2000) A functional cloning strategy, based on a binary PVX-expression vector, to isolate HR-inducing cDNAs of plant pathogens. Plant J. 24, 275283.
  • [19]
    Luderer, R., Takken, F.L.W., De Wit, P.J.G.M., Joosten, M.H.A.J. (2002) Cladosporium fulvum overcomes Cf-2-mediated resistance by producing truncated AVR2 elicitor proteins. Mol. Microbiol. 45, 875884.
  • [20]
    Dean, R.A., Talbot, N.J., Ebbole, D.J., Farman, M.L., Mitchell, T.K., Orbach, M.J., Thon, M., Kulkarni, R., Xu, J.R., Pan, H., Read, N.D., Lee, Y.H., Carbone, I., Brown, D., Oh, Y.Y., Donofrio, N., Jeong, J.S., Soanes, D.M., Djonovic, S., Kolomiets, E., Rehmeyer, C., Li, W., Harding, M., Kim, S., Lebrun, M.H., Bohnert, H., Coughlan, S., Butler, J., Calvo, S., Ma, L.J., Nicol, R., Purcell, S., Nusbaum, C., Galagan, J.E., Birren, B.W. (2005) The genome sequence of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Nature 434, 980986.
  • [21]
    Van't Slot, K.A., van den Burg, H.A., Kloks, C.P., Hilbers, C.W., Knogge, W., Papavoine, C.H. (2003) Solution structure of the plant disease resistance-triggering protein NIP1 from the fungus Rhynchosporium secalis. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 4573045736.
  • [22]
    van den Burg, H.A., Westerink, N., Francoijs, K.J., Roth, R., Woestenenk, E., Boeren, S., De Wit, P.J., Joosten, M.H., Vervoort, J. (2003) Natural disulfide bond-disrupted mutants of AVR4 of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum are sensitive to proteolysis, circumvent Cf-4-mediated resistance, but retain their chitin binding ability. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 2734027346.
  • [23]
    Vervoort, J., van den Hooven, H.W., Berg, A., Vossen, P., Vogelsang, R., Joosten, M.H.A.J., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1997) The race-specific elicitor AVR9 of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum: a cystine knot protein. Sequence-specific 1H NMR assignments, secondary structure and global fold of the protein. FEBS Lett. 404, 153158.
  • [24]
    van den Hooven, H.W., van den Burg, H.A., Vossen, P., Boeren, S., De Wit, P.J., Vervoort, J. (2001) Disulfide bond structure of the AVR9 elicitor of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum: evidence for a cystine knot. Biochemistry 40, 34583466.
  • [25]
    Joosten, M.H.A.J., Vogelsang, R., Cozijnsen, T.J., Verberne, M.C., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1997) The biotrophic fungus Cladosporium fulvum circumvents Cf-4-mediated resistance by producing unstable AVR4 elicitors. Plant Cell 9, 367379.
  • [26]
    Tuori, R.P., Wolpert, T.J., Ciuffetti, L.M. (2000) Heterologous expression of functional Ptr ToxA. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 13, 456464.
  • [27]
    van den Burg, H.A., Spronk, C.A., Boeren, S., Kennedy, M.A., Vissers, J.P., Vuister, G.W., De Wit, P.J., Vervoort, J. (2004) Binding of the AVR4 elicitor of Cladosporium fulvum to chitotriose units is facilitated by positive allosteric protein–protein interactions: the chitin-binding site of AVR4 represents a novel binding site on the folding scaffold shared between the invertebrate and the plant chitin-binding domain. J. Biol. Chem. 279, 1678616796.
  • [28]
    van den Ackerveken, G.F.J.M., Vossen, P., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1993) The AVR9 race-specific elicitor of Cladosporium fulvum is processed by endogenous and plant proteases. Plant Phys. 103, 9196.
  • [29]
    van den Ackerveken, G.F., van Kan, J.A., Joosten, M.H.A.J., Muisers, J.M., Verbakel, H.M., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1993) Characterization of two putative pathogenicity genes of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 6, 210215.
  • [30]
    Jia, Y., McAdams, S.A., Bryan, G.T., Hershey, H.P., Valent, B. (2000) Direct interaction of resistance gene and avirulence gene products confers rice blast resistance. EMBO J. 19, 40044014.
  • [31]
    Laugé, R., Joosten, M.H.A.J., van den Ackerveken, G.F.J.M., van den Broek, H.W.J., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1997) The in planta-produced extracellular proteins ECP1 and ECP2 of Cladosporium fulvum are virulence factors. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 10, 725734.
  • [32]
    Rep, M., Meijer, M., Houterman, P.M., van der Does, H.C., Cornelissen, B.J.C. (2005) Fusarium oxysporum evades I-3-mediated resistance without altering the matching avirulence gene. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 18, 1523.
  • [33]
    Marmeisse, R., Vandenackerveken, G.F.J.M., Goosen, T., Dewit, P.J.G.M., Vandenbroek, H.W.J. (1993) Disruption of the avirulence gene Avr9 in 2 races of the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum causes virulence on tomato genotypes with the complementary resistance gene Cf9. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 6, 412417.
  • [34]
    Farfsing, J.W., Auffarth, K., Basse, C.W. (2005) Identification of cis-active elements in Ustilago maydis mig2 promoters conferring high-level activity during pathogenic growth in maize. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 18, 7587.
  • [35]
    Rep, M., van der Does, H.C., Meijer, M., van Wijk, R., Houterman, P.M., Dekker, H.L., De Koster, C.G., Cornelissen, B.J.C. (2004) A small, cysteine-rich protein secreted by Fusarium oxysporum during colonization of xylem vessels is required for I-3-mediated resistance in tomato. Mol. Microbiol. 53, 13731383.
  • [36]
    Farman, M.L., Eto, Y., Nakao, T., Tosa, Y., Nakayashiki, H., Mayama, S., Leong, S.A. (2002) Analysis of the structure of the AVR1-CO39 avirulence locus in virulent rice-infecting isolates of Magnaporthe grisea. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 15, 616.
  • [37]
    Kang, S., Sweigard, J.A., Valent, B. (1995) The PWL host specificity gene family in the blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 8, 939948.
  • [38]
    Orbach, M.J., Farrall, L., Sweigard, J.A., Chumley, F.G., Valent, B. (2000) A telomeric avirulence gene determines efficacy for the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta. Plant Cell 12, 20192032.
  • [39]
    Sweigard, J.A., Carroll, A.M., Kang, S., Farrall, L., Chumley, F.G., Valent, B. (1995) Identification, cloning, and characterization of PWL2, a gene for host species specificity in the rice blast fungus. Plant Cell 7, 12211233.
  • [40]
    Ciuffetti, L.M., Tuori, R.P., Gaventa, J.M. (1997) A single gene encodes a selective toxin causal to the development of tan spot of wheat. Plant Cell 9, 135144.
  • [41]
    Martinez, J.P., Ottum, S.A., Ali, S., Franci, L.J., Ciuffetti, L.M. (2001) Characterization of the ToxB gene from Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 14, 675677.
  • [42]
    Lauge, R., Goodwin, P.H., De Wit, P.J.G.M., Joosten, M.H.A.J. (2000) Specific HR-associated recognition of secreted proteins from Cladosporium fulvum occurs in both host and non-host plants. Plant J. 23, 735745.
  • [43]
    van der Hoorn, R.A., Laurent, F., Roth, R., De Wit, P.J. (2000) Agroinfiltration is a versatile tool that facilitates comparative analyses of Avr9/Cf-9-induced and Avr4/Cf-4-induced necrosis. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 13, 439446.
  • [44]
    Kooman-Gersmann, M., Vogelsang, R., Hoogendijk, E.C.M., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1997) Assignment of amino acid residues of the AVR9 peptide of Cladosporium fulvum that determine alicitor activity. Mol. Plant Microbe Interact. 10, 821829.
  • [45]
    Wevelsiep, L., Kogel, K.H., Knogge, W. (1991) Purification and characterization of peptides from Rhynchosporium secalis inducing necrosis in barley. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 39, 471482.
  • [46]
    Greenberg, J.T., Yao, N. (2004) The role and regulation of programmed cell death in plant–pathogen interactions. Cell Microbiol. 6, 201211.
  • [47]
    Wolpert, T.J., Dunkle, L.D., Ciuffetti, L.M. (2002) Host-selective toxins and avirulence determinants: what's in a name Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 40, 251285.
  • [48]
    Bailey, B.A., Jennings, J.C., Anderson, J.D. (1997) The 24-kDa protein from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. erythroxyli: occurence in related fungi and the effect of growth medium on its production. Can. J. Microbiol. 43, 4555.
  • [49]
    Pazzagli, L., Cappugi, G., Manao, G., Camici, G., Santini, A., Scala, A. (1999) Purification, characterization, and amino acid sequence of cerato-platanin, a new phytotoxic protein from Ceratocystis fimbriata f. sp. platani. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 2495924964.
  • [50]
    Wevelsiep, L., Rupping, E., Knogge, W. (1993) Stimulation of barley plasmalemma H+-ATPase by phytotoxic peptides from the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium secalis. Plant Physiol. 101, 297301.
  • [51]
    Kwon, C.Y., Rasmussen, J.B., Meinhardt, S.W. (1998) Activity of Ptr ToxA from Pyrenophora tritici-repentis requires host metabolism. Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol. 52, 201212.
  • [52]
    Kooman-Gersmann, M., Honee, G., Bonnema, G., De Wit, P. (1996) A high-affinity binding site for the AVR9 peptide elicitor of Cladosporium fulvum is present on plasma membranes of tomato and other solanaceous plants. Plant Cell 8, 929938.
  • [53]
    Luderer, R., Rivas, S., Nürnberger, T., Mattei, B., van den Hooven, H.W., van der Hoorn, R.A.L., Romeis, T., Wehrfritz, J., Blume, B., Nennstiel, D., Zuidema, D., Vervoort, J., De Lorenzo, G., Jones, J.D.G., De Wit, P.J.G.M., Joosten, M.H.A.J. (2001) No evidence for binding between resistance gene product Cf-9 of tomato and avirulence gene product AVR9 of Cladosporium fulvum. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 14, 867876.
  • [54]
    Rooney, H.C., Van't Klooster, J.W., van der Hoorn, R.A., Joosten, M.H., Jones, J.D., De Wit, P.J. (2005) Cladosporium Avr2 inhibits tomato Rcr3 protease required for Cf-2-dependent disease resistance. Science 308, 17831786.
  • [55]
    Anderson, P.A., Lawrence, G.J., Morrish, B.C., Ayliffe, M.A., Finnegan, E.J., Ellis, J.G. (1997) Inactivation of the flax rust resistance gene M associated with loss of a repeated unit within the leucine-rich repeat coding region. Plant Cell 9, 641651.
  • [56]
    Bryan, G.T., Wu, K.S., Farrall, L., Jia, Y., Hershey, H.P., McAdams, S.A., Faulk, K.N., Donaldson, G.K., Tarchini, R., Valent, B. (2000) A single amino acid difference distinguishes resistant and susceptible alleles of the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta. Plant Cell 12, 20332046.
  • [57]
    Collins, N., Drake, J., Ayliffe, M., Sun, Q., Ellis, J., Hulbert, S., Pryor, T. (1999) Molecular characterization of the maize Rp1-D rust resistance haplotype and its mutants. Plant Cell 11, 13651376.
  • [58]
    Joobeur, T., King, J.J., Nolin, S.J., Thomas, C.E., Dean, R.A. (2004) The Fusarium wilt resistance locus Fom-2 of melon contains a single resistance gene with complex features. Plant J. 39, 283297.
  • [59]
    Lawrence, G.J., Finnegan, E.J., Ayliffe, M.A., Ellis, J.G. (1995) The L6 gene for flax rust resistance is related to the Arabidopsis bacterial resistance gene RPS2 and the tobacco viral resistance gene N. Plant Cell 7, 11951206.
  • [60]
    Simons, G., Groenendijk, J., Wijbrandi, J., Reijans, M.G.J., Diergaarde, P., van der Lee, T., Bleeker, M., Onstenk, J., De Both, M., Haring, M.A., Mes, J.J., Cornelissen, B.J.C., Zabeau, M., Vos, P. (1998) Dissection of the Fusarium I2 gene cluster in tomato reveals six homologs and one active gene copy. Plant Cell 10, 10551068.
  • [61]
    He, S.Y., Jin, Q. (2003) The Hrp pilus: learning from flagella. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 6, 1519.
  • [62]
    Dodds, P.N., Lawrence, G.J., Catanzariti, A.M., Ayliffe, M.A., Ellis, J.G. (2004) The Melampsora lini AvrL567 avirulence genes are expressed in haustoria and their products are recognized inside plant cells. Plant Cell 16, 755768.
  • [63]
    van den Ackerveken, G.F., Dunn, R.M., Cozijnsen, A.J., Vossen, J.P., van den Broek, H.W., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1994) Nitrogen limitation induces expression of the avirulence gene avr9 in the tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. Mol. Gen. Genet. 243, 277285.
  • [64]
    Perez-Garcia, A., Snoeijers, S.S., Joosten, M.H.A.J., Goosen, T., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (2001) Expression of the Avirulence gene Avr9 of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum is regulated by the global nitrogen response factor NRF1. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 14, 316325.
  • [65]
    Snoeijers, S.S., Perez-Garcia, A., Goosen, T., De Wit, P.J. (2003) Promoter analysis of the avirulence gene Avr9 of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum in the model filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Curr. Genet. 43, 96102.
  • [66]
    Solomon, P.S., Oliver, R.P. (2001) The nitrogen content of the tomato leaf apoplast increases during infection by Cladosporium fulvum. Planta 213, 241249.
  • [67]
    Solomon, P.S., Oliver, R.P. (2002) Evidence that γ-aminobutyric acid is a major nitrogen source during Cladosporium fulvum infection of tomato. Planta 214, 414420.
  • [68]
    Torreblanca, J., Stumpferl, S., Basse, C.W. (2003) Histone deacetylase Hda1 acts as repressor of the Ustilago maydis biotrophic marker gene mig1. Fungal Genet. Biol. 38, 2232.
  • [69]
    Schurch, S., Linde, C.C., Knogge, W., Jackson, L.F., McDonald, B.A. (2004) Molecular population genetic analysis differentiates two virulence mechanisms of the fungal avirulence gene NIP1. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 17, 11141125.
  • [70]
    Rep, M., van der Does, H.C., Cornelissen, B.J.C. (2005) Drifter, a novel, low copy hAT-like transposon in Fusarium oxysporum is activated during starvation. Fungal Genet. Biol. 42, 546553.
  • [71]
    Martinez, J.P., Oesch, N.W., Ciuffetti, L.M. (2004) Characterization of the multiple-copy host-selective toxin gene, ToxB, in pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolates of Pyrenophora tritici-repentis. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 17, 467474.
  • [72]
    Temporini, E.D., VanEtten, H.D. (2004) An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution of the pea pathogenicity genes of Nectria haematococca MPVI supports the hypothesis of their origin by horizontal transfer and uncovers a potentially new pathogen of garden pea: Neocosmospora boniensis. Curr. Genet. 46, 2936.
  • [73]
    Westerink, N., Roth, R., van den Burg, H.A., De Wit, P.J., Joosten, M.H. (2002) The AVR4 elicitor protein of Cladosporium fulvum binds to fungal components with high affinity. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 15, 12191227.
  • [74]
    van Kan, J.A., van den Ackerveken, G.F., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1991) Cloning and characterization of cDNA of avirulence gene avr9 of the fungal pathogen Cladosporium fulvum, causal agent of tomato leaf mold. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 4, 5259.
  • [75]
    Wubben, J.P., Joosten, M.H.A.J., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1994) Expression and localization of two in planta induced extracellular proteins of the fungal tomato pathogen Cladosporium fulvum. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 7, 516524.
  • [76]
    Laugé, R., Joosten, M.H.A.J., Haanstra, J.P., Goodwin, P.H., Lindhout, P., De Wit, P.J.G.M. (1998) Successful search for a resistance gene in tomato targeted against a virulence factor of a fungal pathogen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 90149018.