CEU Managing Menopausal Symptoms After the Women's Health Initiative


  • Barbara Hackley CNM, MS,

    Corresponding author
    1. Barbara Hackley, CNM, MS, graduated from the University of Michigan in 1976 with a BSN and from Columbia University with a MS in Nurse-Midwifery in 1981.
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  • Mary Ellen Rousseau CNM, MS

    1. Mary Ellen Rousseau, CNM, MS, is an Associate Professor at the Yale School of Nursing where she teaches gynecology to midwifery and nurse practitioner students.
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Barbara Hackley, CNM, MS, 215 Riverside Drive, Fairfield, CT 06430. E-mail: barbara.hackley@yale.edu


Until the results of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) were released in July 2002, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) had been thought to be the most effective way to manage unwanted menopausal symptoms and to prevent long-term health problems associated with aging. The results of the WHI, showing that HRT is less beneficial and associated with more risks than previously thought, has complicated the management of unwanted menopausal symptoms. This article discusses the effectiveness of HRT and other modalities used to relieve menopausal symptoms and discusses how to choose an HRT product to match specific menopausal complaints and provide maximum safety.