• neonate;
  • kangaroo mother care;
  • breastfeeding;
  • HIV;
  • international health problems;
  • disasters

Neonatal mortality is intolerably high in developing countries and in situations of crisis or disaster as a result of inequity, poverty, and lack of health care services. A series of effective, low-cost interventions, based on appropriate technologies can be used to address the main causes of neonatal deaths. Among these interventions, promotion of exclusive breastfeeding and thermal control of the newborn infant are very effective ones. Although the effectiveness of interventions such as kangaroo mother care, newborn resuscitation, and infant massage is not widely recognized, they may have important complementary roles in providing heath care to newborn infants in adverse conditions.