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ABSTRACT

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

From its very inception, the Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health (JMWH) played a critical role in fostering and documenting major shifts in the professional landscape of midwifery through its editorial content. This article traces the history and evolution of JMWH, commemorates its rich heritage and monumental growth over the last half century, highlights issues that have transcended its 50-year history, and acknowledges the contributions of its leadership … past and present.


INTRODUCTION

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

Fifty years ago, the Bulletin of the American College of Nurse-Midwifery was born. Over the next 5 decades, the publication evolved, in tandem with the growth of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM), and has flourished beyond the imagination of its visionaries. From its very inception, the Bulletin served as the official publication of ACNM, mirroring the professional landscape of midwifery, while proactively giving impetus to major shifts in the development of the profession through its editorial content.

This article traces the history and evolution of the Bulletin of the American College of Nurse-Midwifery, Journal of Nurse-Midwifery (JNM), and Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health (JMWH), and commemorates the rich heritage and monumental growth of each. Milestones that have transcended the 50-year history are highlighted in the text and in Appendix A. By acknowledging the contributions of those who have led the way, it is hoped that today's leaders will be inspired to forge JMWH's next 50 years with equal grit and determination.

THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

During 1954, a Committee on Organization for the American College of Nurse-Midwifery met 6 times and “… following each meeting a bulletin was prepared and sent to all known nurse-midwives who had expressed an interest in a National Organization of Nurse-Midwives, thus keeping them informed on current developments.”1 On November 7, 1955, Articles of Incorporation were filed in the state of New Mexico, and the American College of Nurse-Midwifery became a reality. Only days later (November 12–13), the first annual meeting of ACNM was convened in Kansas City, Missouri, with 17 nurse-midwives from 8 states in attendance.* A Bulletin Committee (soon to be renamed the Publications Committee) was formed under the leadership of ACNM President-Elect, Sister M. Theophane Shoemaker.

A Nurse-Midwife Bulletin, dated December 1955, announced the College's official founding (see Figure 1). This bulletin was mimeographed and mailed to the 468 nurse-midwives known to the Committee on Organization. The response was so favorable, that in March 1956, a second issue was published. It included ACNM President Hattie Hemschemeyer's first message to members as well as a roster of the first 124 members of the College.2 (Periodic rosters continued to be published over the next 10 years until the spring of 1966 when the 491st member was named.) The first issue was later reset, renamed the Bulletin of the American College of Nurse-Midwifery, numbered Volume 1 to ensure continuity and uniformity, and included the following note from Sister Theophane:

image

Figure 1. Bulletin of the American College of Nurse-Midwifery, Volume 1, Number 1.

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“This very first issue will go to all nurse-midwives … in the United States … whose addresses are available…. After this, having given all nurse-midwives opportunity and invitation to apply for membership, the Bulletin will be sent only to members. It will be issued at least four times a year and will be enlarged to meet the needs of the membership.”3

The third and fourth issues of Volume 1 of the Bulletin were combined into the September 1956 edition and featured reports from 4 of the 5 nurse-midwifery education programs in the United States. Two thousand copies of this issue were printed, and copies were sent to all nurse-midwives whose names were available.4 Circulation was then scaled back to 1000 copies; 100 copies of each issue were wrapped and kept for historic purpose. In October 1956, Sr. Theophane stepped down as Chair of the Publications Committee, but she agreed to continue overseeing the printing and mailing of the Bulletin from Atlanta, whereas committee members assumed the responsibility for coordinating special sections of the Bulletin.4 A published report of the Executive Board issued the following challenge:

“… the value of the Bulletin will depend upon the extent to which members of the College use it as a forum. Conversely, to some extent the potential value of our College will be reflected in the caliber of the Bulletin we publish.”5

In April 1958, “an increase in demand” led to the decision to double production to 2000 copies of each issue. However, in an unpublished report dated July 1, 1957 to June 1, 1958, the Publications Committee vented a number of frustrations related to the procurement of material for the Bulletin.6

The September 1958 issue informed the readership that:

“The Bulletin of the American College of Nurse-Midwifery is the official organ of the American College of Nurse-Midwifery, Inc. It is published four times a year. The annual subscription price for non-members is $1.00….”7

A royal blue cover with a white imprint of the ACNM seal was introduced with the March 1959 issue and became the Bulletin's signature for the next 7 years (Figure 2). During the fall of 1959, the Publications Committee in New York took over all printing and mailing responsibilities.8 By the March 1960 issue, the Bulletin was being published by the Columbia University Press, although the actual printing was done in Vermont. The following ramifications of these changes were delineated in a Publications Committee Report dated May 6, 1960:

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Figure 2. Bulletin of the American College of Nurse-Midwifery, Volume 4, Number 3/4.

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“The major problem resulting from the transfer to a New York publisher has been the increased cost of the Bulletin…. The cost is reasonable from the standpoint of prevailing rates in the New York area and of values received, but is not realistic from the standpoint of the College budget….”

“The Committee … needed to reconsider the purpose of having an official College publication and what its value is to a professional organization. The Committee believes that the Bulletin is an important agent for interpreting nurse-midwifery to the health professions and to the public. It also believes that the work being done by nurse-midwives can be strengthened and expanded through the process of sharing ideas and experiences with other nurse-midwives. These two beliefs are the foundation of editorial policies and planning for the Bulletin.”8

Beginning with the July 1966 issue, still another new look was adopted by the Bulletin, with colorful glossy covers replacing the more reserved royal blue and white design (Figure 3).

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Figure 3. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, Volume 14, Number 2.

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In 1969, the publication was renamed Bulletin of the American College of Nurse-Midwives, in keeping with the College's concurrent name change.9 Repeated calls for material were publicized via ACNM's Quickening, which was first introduced as the College's internal newsletter in 1970. The Bulletin was last published in November 1972, and the Journal of Nurse-Midwifery made its debut in the spring of 1973.

THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

In March 1973, ACNM's newsletter Quickening heralded the imminent arrival of the inaugural issue of the Journal of Nurse-Midwifery as follows: “Look for new name, new cover, new format, new publisher, more pages and more information in the soon-to-be-released [JNM], formerly the Bulletin of the American College of Nurse-Midwives.”10 Indeed, the cover of the spring 1973 issue looked quite different from the Bulletin, and for the next 2 years, bands of varying colors ran left laterally, whereas a colored seal appeared in the right-hand corner (Figure 4). It is interesting to note that, although ACNM's seal had been prominently displayed from the very first issue of the Bulletin, specifics about its origin or significance were not detailed until the fall 1973 issue, when Rita Kroska, its designer, filled in the blanks for us.11

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Figure 4. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, Volume 18, Number 3.

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In January 1974, ACNM contracted with Association Management, Inc., for multiple services, including full management and responsibility for the noneditorial details of JNM for a fee of $6000 per year; in addition, National Trade Association Services, Inc., (NTAS) assumed all of the details for advertising and printing responsibilities for JNM, at a cost to ACNM of $5320 for 1800 copies of a 5.5” × 8.5” journal, 4 times per year.12 By the spring 1974 issue, the editorial office moved to Washington, DC.

Once NTAS assumed full responsibility for the publication of JNM in 1975, an entirely different journal was ushered in: JNM's size was enlarged to 8.5” × 11” and unique pictorial cover designs adorned each subsequent issue (Figure 5). That same year, efforts were begun to solicit regional responses to selected “Issues and Opinions” and to recruit Regional Correspondents via announcements in Quickening.13,14

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Figure 5. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, Volume 20, Number 1.

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As the profession matured, the structure of the Journal changed in response. The first reader survey was mailed to ACNM members in the spring of 1978. The results indicated a desire for more informal exchanges. This led to the creation of several permanent standing columns, including the Clinical Practice, Education, and Research Exchanges. Shortly thereafter, the Editorial Board recognized the need for a formal peer review process. In January 1981, a peer review panel was activated, and JNM became a “refereed” journal.

Beginning with the January/February 1979 issue, JNM was published with its current mother/child cover logo, a totally new internal format, and an increase in editorial pages to 60/issue, 360/year (Figure 6). From then on, the Journal remained a bimonthly publication, with the exception of 3 years (1992, 1993, and 1994), when special supplements were created to accommodate JNM's newest innovation, the annual publication of ACNM-approved Home Study Programs (HSPs). These were initially published as 7th issues, adding 96–134 more editorial pages each year. In 1995, an increase in size was successfully negotiated with Elsevier, and 504 editorial pages were allocated to JNM annually.

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Figure 6. Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, Volume 24, Number 1.

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Still finding the need for more editorial, space, JNM was reformatted in 1996, from 3 to 2 columns, thereby recouping the equivalent of 90 additional pages of text at no additional production cost. In the same year, a distinctive improved cover design was initiated, which allowed for the imprinting of essential identifying information on the spine. Negotiations were also begun to increase the number of pages by 10% beginning in 1998. That same year, JNM's “Best Paper of the Year Award” was established. See Appendix B.

THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

In January 2000, the current name, Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, was adopted, reflecting the profession's expanding scope of practice into primary health care for women. Once again, the cover was redesigned and 572 editorial pages were published for the year (Figure 7).

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Figure 7. Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, Volume 45, Number 1.

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Mary Ann Shah retired after 25 years as Editor-in-Chief of JNM/JMWH on May 31, 2000. Shortly thereafter, the ACNM Board of Directors (BOD) conferred upon her the honorary title of Editor Emeritus. On September 10, 2000, at a retirement gala in Mary Ann Shah's honor, the Editorial Board presented her with an unofficial replica of JMWH, in which the royal blue and white colors of the actual journal were reversed and all of the articles were authored by individual Editorial Board members in tribute to her. Of special note was a cartoon created by Associate Editor William McCool, which depicted a “typical” Editorial Board meeting: a rather vivacious Editor addresses a bedraggled group (most asleep, 1 a skeleton) with a clock's hands indicating the wee, small hours of the morning (Figure 8).

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Figure 8. Cartoon by William McCool.

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Lisa Paine assumed the editorship on June 1, 2000, and stepped down in April of 2001. Tekoa King was appointed the next Editor-in-Chief of JMWH in October of 2001. During the transition period, Mary Ann Shah assumed the role of acting Editor-in-Chief. A new position of Deputy Editor was created in 2003, with Patricia Aikins Murphy as the first appointee.

Since the Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health made its debut 5 years ago, significant signs of journalistic maturation have been seen. For example, during 2001: the editorial office moved from the Editor-in-Chief's residence to the ACNM national office; the peer review panel was expanded and now consists of an active group of 80 expert reviewers; an on-line submission and review process was initiated; an editorial assistant was hired at the ACNM national office for 3 days per week. During 2002, the JMWH style guide was produced; the Elsevier office moved from New York to Philadelphia; the JMWH Web page www.jmwh.org was launched; and the Share With Women column was introduced as a copyright-free resource for clinicians to share with their clients. In 2003, the contract with Elsevier was renegotiated; JMWH was redesigned with new fonts and layout of content and modified front matter; ACNM-approved continuing education credit became available for single articles in the 4 issues per year that are not dedicated HSPs; JMWH went on-line, enabling subscribers to have free access to all articles via the Web site; a Deputy Editor was appointed; the editorial assistant position was increased to 80%; and the Mary Ann Shah Award for New Writers was created and awarded for the first time at ACNM's 2004 Annual Meeting.

CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

Organizational Maturation

The Bulletin was produced by the Publications Committee of ACNM for the first 11 years of its existence. In October 1966, an Editorial Board was created and, to date, 12 Editors and myriad Associate Editors, Contributing Editors, and Advisors have worked collectively to produce the journal (see Appendix C).

Under the guise of fiscal responsibility, controversy within the College began to mount about the viability of the journal during the presidential term of Elizabeth Sharp (1973–1975). Dr. Sharp strongly affirmed the value of a journal to a profession and JNM's future was secured. The ACNM BOD created a Division of Publications (DOP) in 1974, with JNM its sole responsibility.

During the first half of 1981, Associate Editor Nancy Kraus took the initiative and, with the support of the entire Editorial Board, undertook a survey of several professional journals to determine if their Editors served as volunteers or were paid; the latter was found to be the growing trend. The JNM Editorial Board then recommended to the ACNM BOD that they consider the allocation of a part-time salary to the JNM Editor-in-Chief. The Board unanimously agreed that the Editor-in-Chief position should become a paid position as rapidly as money could be found to finance it. As a first step, Mary Ann Shah was charged to submit a grant request to the A.C.N.M. Foundation, Inc., to subsidize an Editor's honorarium. The BOD also decided that any additional monies the Journal could generate (including any royalty income in surplus of the guaranteed $18,000 income from Elsevier) would go to the Editor-in-Chief for 1982 and that allocations for that position would commence with the next year's budget.

By 1982, new Standing Rules of Procedure were implemented that separated the DOP Chair and JNM Editor positions and created 2 subdivisions: JNM and an Informational Publications Committee. Mary Ann Shah remained Editor-in-Chief, whereas Lily Hsia was appointed the new DOP Chair. Because of the special needs of JNM, unlimited tenures for JNM Editorial Board members were also approved at that time by the ACNM BOD.

Recognizing that a professional journal of JMWH's stature should be independent of organizational oversight, the BOD abolished the Division of Publications in 2000, at the recommendation of the Editorial Board.

Under this new structure, the Editor-in-Chief reports directly to ACNM's Executive Director. In 2002, ACNM hired its first administrative assistant for JMWH and, in 2003, its first Deputy Editor, both as part-time staff.

Advertising Controversies

In 1960, the Publications Committee indicated in a report that it was not in favor of paid advertising in the Bulletin.8 Indeed, the first commercial ad to be displayed in the Bulletin did not appear until the February 1967 issue. It advertised an infant formula, which provoked a controversy that continues to this day.

Although the first advertisement for contraceptives appeared in the August 1968 issue of the Bulletin, the ACNM BOD officially approved the advertising of contraceptives by JNM in early 1974.15 In the fall 1976 issue, advertising policies for JNM were published and included this statement: “Acceptance of advertising does not mean endorsement by the Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. …”16 A slightly modified disclaimer is currently in effect.17

Another ad that incited unrest appeared in the winter 1978 issue of JNM. It depicted a rather bedraggled pregnant woman rising from her bed in a dowdy house dress and slippers; the clock points to 2 o'clock, and the sun is obviously shining.18 Ironically, in that very same issue an article on “The Body Image in Pregnancy” was featured, in which positive imagery of the pregnant woman was championed. A behind-the-scenes protest by Editor-in-Chief Mary Ann Shah to NTAS, the agency that represented JNM for the solicitation of advertisements, was apparently effective; in the very next issue, the same company's new ad depicted a very wide awake and attractive woman.19 Nevertheless, Associate Editor Gail Sinquefield wrote a Letter to the Editor in the fall 1978 issue, expressing her personal dismay at the appearance of such an ad. An Editor's Note followed that stated: “… the Editorial Board of JNM will, in the future, strictly enforce its policy of screening all ads prior to publication….”20

In 1998, the ACNM BOD approved advertising guidelines that were applicable to all publications of the College; these were amended in 2000 and 2002. They specify that ACNM will not accept advertising for alcohol, illegal drugs, tobacco, or firearms. In addition, advertisements for pharmaceutical products that are subject to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) policies must comply with FDA regulations regarding advertising and promotion.21

Publication Crossroads and Struggles

Between 1975 and 1978, the Editorial Board grew increasingly frustrated by constant publication delays and frequent faux pas created by NTAS. The final straw occurred in the spring/summer 1978 issue, when an article about Cook County Hospital included photos of the front facade of the edifice as well as a headshot of the Chair of the Department of Obstetrics. To the Editorial Board's dismay, the caption below the two pictures had been switched, and Dr. Augusta Webster, a very distinguished looking woman, was identified as the front facade of Cook County Hospital, and vice versa. An erratum and apology appeared in the fall 1978 issue of JNM. The ACNM BOD responded to the pleas of the Editor-in-Chief and charged the DOP to explore other Publishing Houses to see if better service could be obtained to meet the professional needs of ACNM.

When the situation became intolerable, Mary Ann Shah wrote an open letter22 informing the readership that an aggressive search for a more acceptable publishing alternative was underway. In collaboration with ACNM President Helen Varney Burst, Mary Ann Shah presented a proposed contract between ACNM and a new printer/distributor, Elsevier North Holland, Inc. On September 15, 1978, the first 5-year contract was signed.

An artist was immediately hired by Elsevier to design a new cover. The mother/child logo in royal blue and white, which adorns the cover to this day, was approved by the Editorial Board. ACNM was guaranteed a royalty of $7,500 for 1979, $13,000 for 1980, and $18,000 for 1981, plus 55% of all profits over these amounts. The contract was renewed for 5 more years in January 1987, with a guaranteed royalty of $20,000 per year plus 55% of profits; a clause was added, making the contract automatically renewable thereafter, with the consent of both parties. JNM's royalties from Elsevier have always exceeded the minimum guarantees, surpassing $75,000 by 1995, $100,000 by 1999, and $150,000 by 2004.

Index Medicus Struggles: JNM Versus Poultry Science

In April 1976, JNM's first application for inclusion in Index Medicus was denied. The Editor-in-Chief immediately reapplied, but the Journal was again denied inclusion in March 1977 and December 1977. A 2-year wait for resubmission was imposed by Index Medicus; this was appealed by Mary Ann Shah, and that ruling was waived. In January 1979, JNM's fourth application to Index Medicus was unsuccessful again.

In February 1981, Mary Ann Shah and Sally Tom, ACNM's Government Liaison, personally appealed JNM's repeated exclusions in a meeting with the Editor of Index Medicus, who acknowledged the absence of criteria for their review process. After admitting to a lack of knowledge about midwifery, the Index Medicus Editor hinted that JNM's next application would probably be successful. Nonetheless, a fourth form letter of rejection was received from Index Medicus just 1 month later. The ACNM BOD authorized the JNM Editor-in-Chief to contact ACNM's attorney regarding these repeated rejections and a decision was made to try one more time before instituting any legal action. A new application was submitted with a fact sheet that addressed JNM, ACNM, and international midwifery. Still, in March 1982, JNM received its fifth rejection from Index Medicus and, in February 1984, the sixth. Out of total frustration, Mary Ann Shah wrote a searing editorial in 1985 about the Index Medicus process in which she mused:

“‘Queens never make bargains,’ quoth the Red Queen. Surely, Lewis Carroll was on to something when he immortalized these satirically potent words in Alice and Wonderland. His caricature of the Red Queen as an imperiously arbitrary despot evoked no amazement in Wonderland. What amazed those of us not in Wonderland, however, is how aptly the Red Queen personifies the powers-that-be at Index Medicus…. “

“… By what criterion … was it determined that Poultry Science services more Index users than does the Journal of Nurse-Midwifery? Could it be that midwives, who attend childbearing women around the world are seen as less important than egg-laying hens?”23

A seventh application was submitted in January 1986. Five months later, the new editor of Index Medicus informed Mary Ann Shah that JNM had been accepted for inclusion, and that her “… editorial was on the desk of every member of the Index Medicus Board of Review and was the impetus for the development of selection criteria.” On July 23, 1986, a letter of official acceptance into Index Medicus was received by JNM, nearly 10 years after the first application.

THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

When one peruses the back issues of the Bulletin/Journal of Nurse-Midwifery/Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health, the critical role they played in advancing midwifery practice, education, and research becomes all too apparent. Articles that document the professional development of midwifery and of ACNM are safeguarded in these Journal archives. Studies published through the years have provided clear evidence that midwives offer women safe, competent, and satisfying care. Cutting edge editorials have served as catalysts for change, as the profession grappled with such issues as accreditation, certification, expanded practice, etc. Since 1989, Home Study Programs have provided excellent learning opportunities for readers to keep abreast of the expanding knowledge base required of midwives, especially as the scope of midwifery practice has forged deeper into the arenas of well-woman gynecology and primary health care for women. These programs have offered a good resource for those in need of continuing education credits (CEUs) and have generated substantial income for the College (Table 1).

Table 1.  JNM/JMWH Home Studies
  1. *Starting with the issue 49–6, the “Home Study Program” title was changed to “A Special Continuing Education Issue Sponsored by the Journal of Midwifery and Women's Health.

1989:2-Part “AIDS”
1990/1991:2-Part “Well Woman Gynecology”
1992:“The Newborn”
1993:“Advanced Nurse-Midwifery Practice”
1994:“Obstetric Complications”
1995:“Primary Care for Women, Part 1: Comprehensive Health Assessment”
 “Home Birth”
1996:“Primary Care for Women, Part 2: Management of Common Health Problems”
 “Domestic Violence: Strategies for Improving Assessment and Intervention”
1997:“Pharmacologic Management of Common Health Problems in Women”
 “Primary Care for Women, Part 3: A Public Health Perspective”
1998:2-Part “Reproductive Health Issues for Women”
1999:“Complementary/Alternative Therapies in Women's Health”
2000:“Lactation Issues for the New Millennium”
 “Clinical Parameters of Midwifery Practice”
2001:2-Part “Evidence and Midwifery Practice”
2002:2-Part “Pharmacology”
2003:“Adolescent Health”
 “Midwifery Education”
 CEU allocations were also instituted for single articles in non-HSP issues of JMWH
2004:“Ethics in Midwifery & Women's Health”
 “Nature of Pain in Women's Health: Steps Toward Understanding and Management”*
2005:“Genetics” and “Risk Management” (scheduled for publication)

THE NEXT 50 YEARS

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

Tekoa King, the current Editor-in-Chief, succinctly laid out JMWH's continuing mission in her inaugural editorial as follows:

“JMWH is the vehicle through which the art and the science of midwifery can be recorded. As the nation and profession adapt to change … JMWH is poised to document and publicize the scope of midwifery practice as it continues to evolve.”25

On November 11, 2002, the Editorial Board approved the following mission statement:

“The Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health (JMWH) is a bimonthly, peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the publication of original research and review articles that focus on midwifery and women's health. JMWH provides a forum for interdisciplinary exchange across a broad range of women's health issues. Manuscripts that address midwifery, women's health, education, evidence-based practice, public health, policy, and research are welcomed.”

Now that JMWH has entered the electronic era and can be accessed on-line, its potential audience has greatly increased. Hence, it can be predicted with some certainty that over the next half-century, manuscript submissions will increase dramatically; the authorship of published articles will represent a broad spectrum of professional disciplines; scientific evidence will continue to accrue in support of the art and science integral to midwifery practice; and the holistic approach to women's health care, as championed by midwives, will be advanced both nationally and internationally.

REFERENCES

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board
  • 1
    Hemschemeyer H. Report of the first president of the American College of Nurse-Midwifery. Bull Am College Nurse Midwifery 1965;X:410.
  • 2
    Hemschemeyer H. Bull Am College Nurse Midwifery 1956;1:5.
  • 3
    Theophane Sr M. Bull Am College Nurse Midwifery 1955;1:3.
  • 4
    Hosford B. Publications Committee Report; July 13, 1957.
  • 5
    Bull Am College Nurse Midwifery 1957;2.1.
  • 6
    Hosford B. Report of Publications Committee; July 1, 1957 to June 1, 1958.
  • 7
    Bull Am College Nurse Midwifery 1958;3.47.
  • 8
    Report of Publications Committee-ACNM; May 6, 1960.
  • 9
    Leppert P. The merger and the “Birth” of the American College of Nurse-Midwives. Bull Am College Nurse Midwives 1969;XIV:689.
  • 10
    American College of Nurse-Midwives. Quickening 1973;4:10.
  • 11
    Kroska RA. The emblem of the American College of Nurse-Midwives. J Nurse Midwifery 1973;XVIII:234.
  • 12
    American College of Nurse-Midwives. Quickening 1974;5:2.
  • 13
    American College of Nurse-Midwives. Quickening 1975;6:8.
  • 14
    American College of Nurse-Midwives. Quickening 1975;6:4.
  • 15
    American College of Nurse-Midwives. Quickening 1974;5:2.
  • 16
    Advertising Policies. J Nurse Midwifery 1976;XXI:38.
  • 17
    Information for readers. J Midwifery & Women's Health 2004;49.
  • 18
    Fergon. J Nurse Midwifery 1978;XXII:inside front cover.
  • 19
    Fergon. J Nurse Midwifery 1978;XXIII (spring/summer):inside front cover.
  • 20
    Sinquefield G. Letter to the editor. 1978;XXIII(fall):67.
  • 21
    American College Nurse-Midwives. Guidelines for Advertising/Sponsorship.
  • 22
    Shah MA. An open letter to JNM readers. J Nurse Midwifery 1978;XXIII(fall/summer):5.
  • 23
    Shah MA. Index Medicus: The JNM struggle is far from over. J Nurse Midwifery 1985;30:6970.
  • 24
    Burst HV. Mary Ann Shah and the Journal of Nurse-Midwifery. J Midwifery Womens Health 2001;46:10910.
  • 25
    King T. The journey: crisis and opportunity. J Midwifery Womens Health 2002;47:1.

Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

1955— The Bulletin of the American College of Nurse-Midwifery was introduced and mailed to 468 nurse-midwives

1961— The first index was published, covering the first 6 years of the publication

1973— Title changed to Journal of Nurse-Midwifery

1974— ACNM BOD approved of contraceptive advertising in JNM

1975— Size changed from 5.5” × 8.5” to 8.5” × 11”; continued to be published quarterly; circulation—1800; cost to ACNM— $11,320 per year

1979— Contract signed with Elsevier; ACNM guaranteed royalties: 1979 = $7,500, 1980 = $13,000, 1981 = $18,000, plus 55% of any profits in excess of these amounts; circulation—3000; frequency of publication increased to bimonthly; number of Editorial Pages = 60/issue, 360/year

1981— Peer review panel activated and JNM declared “refereed”

1982— Separation of the DOP Chair and the JNM Editorship; JNM Editor began receiving a salary of $11,000 per annum

1986— JNM gained entry into Index Medicus after 6 unsuccessful attempts

1987— Contract between ACNM and Elsevier renewed for 5 years (subject to automatic renewal thereafter); ACNM guaranteed an annual royalty of $18,000 plus 55% of any profits attained beyond this amount; circulation—4,600

1989— 1st ACNM CEU-approved HSP

1992–1994— 3rd, 4th, and 5th ACNM CEU-approved HSPs published as special supplements, creating a 7th issue of JNM for those 3 years, with 96–134 additional pages per issue

1995— JNM increased to 504 editorial pages and special supplements discontinued; during this year, royalties for JNM exceeded $75,000, whereas income generated from Home Study Programs exceeded $35,000; JNM-logo jewelry was introduced

1996— JNM reformatted to 2 columns to acquire the equivalent of 90 additional pages of text at no additional production cost, perfect binding for JNM's cover initiated; negotiations began for a 10% increase in pages for 1998

1998— The Best Paper and Best Book of the Year Awards established

2001— The editorial office moved from the editor's residence to the ACNM national office; the peer review panel began its expansion to its current composition of 80 expert reviewers; an on-line submission and review process was initiated; an editorial assistant was hired at the ACNM national office for 3 days per week

2002— The JMWH style guide was produced; the Elsevier office moved from New York to Philadelphia; the JMWH Web page www.jmwh.org was launched; and the Share With Women column was introduced as a copyright-free resource for clinicians to share with their clients

2003— JMWH redesigned with new fonts and layout of content and modified front matter; ACNM-approved CEUs became available for single articles in the 4 issues per year that are not dedicated HSPs; JMWH went on-line, enabling subscribers to have free access to all articles via the Web site; a Deputy Editor was appointed

2004— The first Mary Ann Shah Award for New Writers was awarded at the ACNM's 2004 Annual Meeting

Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

1998 (for articles published in 1997)

“Evaluation of a Reduced-Frequency Prenatal Visit Schedule for Low-Risk Women at a Free-Standing Birthing Center.” JNM 1997;42:295–303) By Deborah S. Walker, CNM, DNSc and Deborah Koniak-Griffin, RN, EdD, FAAN

1999 (a 2-way tie for articles published in 1998)

“Midwifery Management of Pain in Labor.” JNM 1998;43:77–82). Award accepted by Leah Albers, CNM, DrPH, FACNM on behalf of The CNM Data Group, 1996

“Current Issues in the Midwifery Management of Women Living with HIV/AIDS.” JNM 1999;43:502–25). By Aileen MacLaren, CNM, PhD and Wendy Imberg, MN, ARNP

2000 (for articles published in 1999)

“Herbs and the Childbearing Woman: Guidelines for Midwives.” JNM 1999;44:231–52). By Cindy Belew, CNM

2001 (for articles published in 2000)

“A Model of Exemplary Midwifery Practice Results of a Delphi Study.” JMWH 2000;45:4-19). By Holly Powell Kennedy, CNM, PhD, FACNM

2002 (for articles published in 2001)

“Hidden from View: Violent Deaths among Pregnant Women in the District of Columbia 1988–1996.” JMWH 2001;46:4-10). By Cara J. Krulewitch, CNM, PhD; Marie Lydie Pierre-Louis, MD; Regina de Leon-Gomez, MD; Richard Guy, MD; and Richard Green, MD

2003 (a 2-way tie for articles published in 2002)

“Women's Public Health Policy in the 21st Century.” (JMWH 2002;47:228–38). By Julie Mottl-Santiago, CNM, MPH

“Vaginal Birth after Cesarean Birth: A National Survey of US Midwifery Practice.” (JMWH 2002;47:347–53). By Catherine Carr, CNM, DrPH; Pat Burkhardt, CNM, DrPH; and Melissa Avery, CNM, PhD

2004 (for articles published in 2003)

“Adolescents’ Experiences of Childbirth: Contrasts with Adults.” (JMWH 2003;48:192–98). By Lisa Kane Low, CNM, PhD, FACNM; Karin Martin, PhD; Carolyn Sampselle, RNC, PhD, FAAN; Barbara Guthrie, RN, PhD; and Deborah Oakley, PhD

Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

  1. Top of page
  2. ABSTRACT
  3. INTRODUCTION
  4. THE BULLETIN: 1955–1972
  5. THE JOURNAL OF NURSE-MIDWIFERY: 1973–1999
  6. THE JOURNAL OF MIDWIFERY & WOMEN'S HEALTH: 2000–2005
  7. CHALLENGES AND CHANGES OVER TIME
  8. THE JOURNAL AND THE PROFESSION
  9. THE NEXT 50 YEARS
  10. REFERENCES
  11. Appendix A. A Chronologic Summary of JMWH's Evolution
  12. Appendix B. JNM/JMWH Best Paper of the Year Awards
  13. Appendix C. Journal Editorial Board

Nurse-Midwife Bulletin (1955)

Bulletin of the American College of Nurse-Midwifery (1955–1969)

Bulletin of the American College of Nurse-Midwives (1969–1972)

Journal of Nurse-Midwifery (1973–1999)

Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health (2000-Present)

Editors (1955–2005)*

Sr. M. Theophane Shoemaker (Agnes Reinders) 1955–1956

Elizabeth Hosford 1956–1959

Anna Mary Noll 1959–1960

Marion Strachan 1960–1961

Mary C. Dunn 1961–1965

Phyllis Leppert 1965–1970

Sandra J. Regenie 1970–1971

Elizabeth King 1971–1973

Ruth Helmich 1973–1975

Mary Ann Shah 1975-2000

Lisa L. Paine 2000–2001

Tekoa L. King 2001-Present

DEPUTY EDITOR

Patricia Aikins Murphy

EDITORIAL BOARD

Mary Barger

Linda Baxter

Johanna Borsellega

Pennie Sessler Branden

Mary Brucker

Karen Burgin

Kathy Camacho Carr

Betty Watts Carrington

Terri Clark

Lee Clay

Miriam Cole

Eileen Connelly

Mary Crawford

Mary-Scovill Elder

Mary Ann Faucher

Sara Fetter

Joyce Cameron Foster

Jacqueline M. Gibson

Evelyn Hart

Hattie Hemschemeyer

Magdalena Hennel

Helen Hentschel

Aileen Hogan

Lily Hsia

Vera Keane

Holly Powell Kennedy

Nancy Kiley

Pauline Krajewski

Nancy Kraus

Cara Krulewitch

Francie Likis

Callista Lillard

Annie Litz

Rose McNaught

Dorcas Manrodt

William McCool

Joann Monson

Freda Parks

Jeanne Raisler

Jo-Anna Rorie

Patricia Rose

Lillian Runnerstrom

Marilynn Schmidt

Maureen Shannon

Gail Sinquefield

Betty Von Soosten

Kimberly Whitfill

Ernestine Wiedenbach

Deanne Williams

Laura Zeidenstein

CONSULTANTS

Diane Angelini

Leah Albers

Penny Armstrong

Judith Bernstein

Helen Varney Burst

Nina Carroll

Betty Chern-Hughes

Dorothy Corbett Wertz

Sarah Cox

Eugene Declercq

Jeanne DeJoseph

Donna Diers

Cynthia Farley

Judith Fullerton

Barbara Graves

Ralph Hingson

Vince Hutchins

Peter Johnson

Timothy R.B. Johnson

Ronnie Lichtman

Mona Lydon-Rochelle

Carol Nichols

Judith Norsigian

Barbara Peterson

Joyce Roberts

Judith P. Rooks

Mary Ellen Rousseau

Carol Sakala

Joyce Beebe Thompson

Judith Carveth Trexler

Cheri Van Hoover

Judy Weiss

Lynn Zanardi

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS

Martha Baird

Deborah Bash

Claudia Calle

Jean Cassidy

Sarah Dillian Cohn

Lorna Davis

Patricia Deibel

Eileen Ehudin-Pagano

Jacqueline Fawcett

Susan Fekety

Frederick Gonzalez

Sarabeth Gottlieb

Doris Haire

Mary Hilliard

Jerrilyn Hobdy

Lauren P. Hunter

Elisabeth Hyde

Sr. Mary Louise Kagan

Ginette Lange

Amy Laufer

Ela-joy Lehrman

Thomas Lloyd

Vanda Lops

Nancy Loewen

Gail Ludwig

Kathryn McElroy

Judith Mercer

Jerrilyn Meyer

Cynthia Monshower

Dianne Moore

Nancy Nance

Judith Nelson

Janet Nosek

Eileen Olesker

Lois Olsen

Deborah Piper

Nancy Jo Reedy

Mary Ann Rhode

Ruth Richter

Elizabeth Riggs

Lynette Russell

Suzanne Schechter

Susan Shippey

Marcia Storch

Nancy Sullivan

Sally Urang

Patricia Urbanus

Minta Uzodinma

Elizabeth Vitale

Deborah Walker

Morning Waters

Nancy Whitley

Ruth Wingeir

Victoria Wirth

Carol Wood

NOTES
  • *

    Although many of the above have held multiple roles, only one role is listed per individual.

  • A list of the peer reviewers can be found in 2000;45(1):3 and on the masthead of each issue prior to Vol. 46 and in the November/December issue of volumes 46–49.

  • Editorial license has been taken with some of the position titles. Those listed as “contributing editors” were variously: committee chairs, assistant and contributing editors, and editorial advisory committee members. Board members are listed as consultants.