Brenda M. Afzal, RN, MS, is a Co-director of the Environmental Health Education Center, at the University of Maryland School of Nursing.
Drinking Water and Women's Health
Article first published online: 24 DEC 2010
2006 American College of Nurse Midwives
Journal of Midwifery & Womens Health
Volume 51, Issue 1, pages 12–18, January-February 2006
How to Cite
Afzal, B. M. (2006), Drinking Water and Women's Health. Journal of Midwifery & Womens Health, 51: 12–18. doi: 10.1016/j.jmwh.2005.08.014
- Issue published online: 24 DEC 2010
- Article first published online: 24 DEC 2010
- chlorination by-products;
- consumer confidence report;
- maximum contaminant levels
Primary health providers in the community must be able to field questions and guide vulnerable populations to informed decisions about drinking water quality and health. This article offers an overview of selected contaminants in drinking water and their possible effects on the health of women over the life span. Historical concerns for drinking water safety, which led to the development of current drinking water regulations, are briefly explored. Several chemical, microbial, and radionuclide contaminants of particular concern to women and children are discussed. Short- and long-term tap water alternatives are suggested for when tap water is deemed unsuitable for use.