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Diagnosis and Management of Candida of the Nipple and Breast


  • Sharon Wiener CNM, MPH

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    • Sharon Wiener, CNM, MPH, is an assistant clinical professor in the Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences at UCSF, and a member of a collaborative faculty practice.

Sharon Wiener, CNM, MPH, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, 505 Parnassus Avenue, M-1493, San Francisco, CA 94143–0132. E-mail:


Diagnosis and treatment of ductal and/or nipple candidiasis in breastfeeding women is complicated by the variety of symptoms women experience. The differential diagnosis includes candidiasis of the nipple, candidiasis of the breast, bacterial infection of either nipple or breast, and other less common problems such as Raynaud's syndrome. Diagnosis and treatment are based on history, physical examination, and presenting symptomatology because cultures of breast milk are often inconclusive. Differential diagnoses and treatment options are reviewed.