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Keywords:

  • ectopic pregnancy;
  • pregnancy diagnosis;
  • first trimester bleeding;
  • pregnancy tests;
  • ultrasound;
  • spontaneous abortion;
  • pregnancy complications

ABSTRACT

The incidence of ectopic pregnancy in the United States has been reported to be as high as 20 per 1000 pregnancies, a more than 4-fold increase over the last 20 years. Clinical presentation can range from subtle, nonspecific abdominal complaints to acute onset pain or hemorrhagic bleeding. This article reviews the associated risk factors, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of ectopic pregnancy. Clinicians must maintain a high index of suspicion whenever women who might be pregnant have abdominal complaints.