Get access

Nutritional Counseling for Vegetarians During Pregnancy and Lactation


  • Debra S. Penney CNM, MS, MPH,

    Corresponding authorSearch for more papers by this author
    • Debra S. Penney, CNM, MS, MPH, is an assistant clinical professor at the University of Utah, and teaches in the Nurse-Midwifery and Women's Health dual program at the University of Utah.

  • Kathleen G. Miller CNM, MS

    Search for more papers by this author
    • Kathleen G. Miller CNM, MS, practices full-scope midwifery with Mt. Olympus Obstetrics and Gynecology in Salt Lake City.

10 South 2000 East, Salt Lake City, UT 84112. E-mail:


A woman's nutritional status directly affects pregnancy outcome and the quality of breast milk after birth. Clinicians who provide prenatal care have an important role in assessing the nutritional status of women and directing them to appropriate resources while respecting their choices. Vegetarian and vegan diets may present with unique nutrient deficiencies that can be addressed during prenatal nutritional counseling.