Intra-amniotic infection (IAI), or chorioamnionitis, complicates up to 10% of all pregnancies and up to 2% of labors at term. There is a significant risk of complications for the mother and the neonate following IAI, including sepsis and pneumonia. In addition, there is a correlation between IAI and premature rupture of membranes, preterm premature rupture of membranes, preterm labor, and preterm birth. Research in the last decade has also revealed a complex and significant association between IAI and cerebral palsy and other central nervous system damage in both the preterm and term fetus. Timely diagnosis and treatment of IAI can significantly reduce the risk of both maternal and neonatal complications.