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Keywords:

  • antibiotics;
  • antibiotic resistance;
  • infectious disease

Current national and international trends in antibiotic resistance are becoming a public health crisis. Multi-drug resistant organisms are more prevalent in hospital settings and, alarmingly, are now being identified in the community. Over-reliance on broad-spectrum antibiotics, as well as inappropriate prescribing practices, play a significant role in encouraging the emergence of resistant organisms. This article reviews the mechanisms of bacterial resistance, current trends in national and international antibiotic resistance, and examines approaches to combat pathogens while sparing benign microbes.