Get access

Gynecologic Care of the Female-to-Male Transgender Man


  • Lauren Dutton CNM, MSN,

    Corresponding author
      Lauren Dutton, CNM, MSN, 24040 Cliff Dr, Worton, MD 21678. E-mail:
    Search for more papers by this author
    • Lauren Dutton, CNM, MSN, is a clinician at Planned Parenthood of Maryland and a recent graduate of Yale University School of Nursing.

  • Karel Koenig PhD, FNP, NP-C,

    Search for more papers by this author
    • Karel Koenig, PhD, FNP, NP-C, was an assistant professor at the Yale School of Nursing until June 2007. She is a Family Nurse Practitioner in both private and community family health settings.

  • Kristopher Fennie MSC, MPH, PhD

    Search for more papers by this author
    • Kristopher Fennie, MSC, MPH, PhD, is a research scientist and lecturer at the Yale School of Nursing. He specializes in infectious disease epidemiology in disenfranchised populations.

Lauren Dutton, CNM, MSN, 24040 Cliff Dr, Worton, MD 21678. E-mail:


Transgender men are a vulnerable population whose health care needs have been difficult to identify because of limited research and an inability to identify the population. Limited evidence suggests that transgender men are at increased risk of having polycystic ovarian syndrome, contracting HIV, experiencing violence, and committing suicide. This qualitative study, conducted through face-to-face interviews of a convenient sample, was a three-part interview containing a demographic and health questionnaire, the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire, as well as the Health Care Relationship Trust Scale. Audio recordings and written notes were reviewed and common themes were identified via content analysis. Six self-identified transgender men between the ages of 19 and 45 years were enrolled in the study. Participants were at varying degrees of social and medical transition. Four major themes were identified: 1) receiving gynecologic care was perceived to be important; 2) breasts caused the most gender identity conflict; 3) transgender men struggle with revealing their gender identity to health care providers; and 4) the male/female boxes on health intake forms, as well as pronoun usage by medical staff, were barriers to receiving health care. This gynecologic health care needs assessment of transgender men begins to characterize the barriers transgender men face when seeking health care.

Get access to the full text of this article