Distraction osteogenesis in the Cbfa-1+/− mouse



Distraction osteogenesis involves division of a bone and gradually pulling the bone ends apart. This delivers mechanical stimulation to mesenchymal cells in the distraction gap, where new bone is regenerated predominantly by intramembranous ossification. The transcription factor Cbfal has been reported to be essential for the differentiation of mesenchymal cells to osteoblasts. In homozygous Cbfal knockout mice, both intramembranous and endochondral ossification mechanisms are blocked and no bone formation occurs. In heterozygous Cbfal knockout mice, only the cranial bones and the clavicles, which form through intramembranous ossification, fail to develop properly as in the human condition of cleidocranialdysostosis. It has been suggested, therefore, that intramembranous ossification is affected by the absence of one of the paired Cbfal genes. We have assessed the potential for intramembranous ossification following distraction osteogenesis in heterozygous Cbfal knockout mice. Fourteen skeletally mature male heterozygous mice were used, together with 10 wild-type controls. The tibia was distracted by 0.25 mm twice a day (0.5 mm/day) for 10 days using the half-ring type fixator. Nine mice were kept for a further 28 days to observe the consolidation phase. In four out of five mice of the heterozygous group and in all three wild-type mice, bony fusion within the distraction gap was observed on radiographs. Histological findings were almost the same in the two groups at various stages of the procedure and intramembranous ossification was predominant in both the groups. Despite the inhibition of intramembranous ossification during the foetal development of Cbfal+/− mice, distraction osteogenesis was as successful as in control mice. © 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.