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Keywords:

  • Osteolysis;
  • Wear-debris;
  • Cytokines;
  • Mouse model;
  • Periprosthetic membrane

Abstract

Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a proinflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in wear-debris associated total joint replacement failure. We hypothesized that the absence of the IL-1 type-1 receptor would mitigate the inflammatory response to titanium particles and decrease periprosthetic inflammatory tissue in a murine intramedullary rod model. Methods: An intramedullary rod with and without commercially pure titanium particles was placed in the femora of 24 wild type mice (WT) and 24 mice lacking a functional type-1 receptor to IL-1. Femora were analyzed histologically and by ELISA of organ culture explant supernatants. Results: The presence of titanium particles in WT mice stimulated increased expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) relative to rod only controls. In contrast, IL-6 and MCP-1 expression were diminished in IL-lrl-KO mice exposed to titanium particles. Additionally, the formation of a periprosthetic fibro-inflammatory membrane in IL-lrl-KO mice was blunted at 2 weeks when compared to that in wild-type mice. Inflammatory changes and the quality of periprosthetic bone of IL-lrl-KO mice was similar to WT mice in response to titanium particles. Conclusions: These results implicate IL-1 as an important modulator in the local inflammatory response to intramedullary titanium particles. MCP-1 appears to be significantly modulated in IL-lrl-KO mice in response to titanium particles. This may be responsible, in part, for the diminished periprosthetic membrane observed in IL-lrl-KO mice at 2 weeks. Expansion of this murine model of intramedullary particle-induced inflammation to other gene targets may contribute to a more mechanistic understanding of wear-debris associated prosthesis failure. © 2004 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.