• life history;
  • demography;
  • lemur;
  • Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi;
  • unpredictability;
  • Madagascar


A 16-year study of wild, unprovisioned sifaka Propithecus verreauxi verreauxi at Beza Mahafaly in south-west Madagascar provides estimates of age-specific fertility, mortality, and dispersal in a population of 426 marked animals, and longitudinal records of individual life histories. Sifaka females give birth for the first time later and live longer, for their size, than mammals in other orders; they also give birth later and continue reproducing longer, for their size, than other primates. Theory postulates that these features, commonly referred to as bet-hedging, evolve in unpredictable environments in association with widely varying infant survival and a trade-off between reproductive effort and adult survival. The climate of south-west Madagascar is highly unpredictable compared to almost all other regions in the tropics with similar average rainfall, and we argue that sifaka females are bet-hedgers par excellence. Male sifaka, in contrast, become reproductively active at an earlier age than females, and are less likely to have long lives than females. The atypical direction of this asymmetry between males and females reflects a ‘slowing down’ of female life histories rather than a ‘speeding up’ of male life histories. Two other unusual features of sifaka biology and behaviour may be linked to the unpredictability of Madagascar's climate: intense local competition between females, and a sex ratio at birth strongly biased in favour of males in most years. In drought years, reproductive females must cope with suddenly intensified resource constraints. This, in turn, may strongly limit the number of ‘breeding slots’ available over the long-term for females.