Pre-adult development time, dry weight at eclosion, and daily fecundity over the first 10 days of adult life were measured in five species of Drosophila from the melanogaster and immigrans species groups. Overall, the three species of the melanogaster group (D. melanogaster, D. ananassae, D. malerkotliana) developed faster, were lighter at eclosion, and produced more eggs per unit weight at eclosion than the two species of the immigrans group (D. n. nasuta, D. sulfurigaster neonasuta). The degree of sexual dimorphism in dry weight was greater than that in development time, but did not vary significantly among species, and was not correlated with fecundity, contrary to expectations that sexual selection for increased fecundity drives sexual size dimorphism in Drosophila. The degree of dimorphism in development time was significantly correlated with dry weight and fecundity, with lighter species tending to be more dimorphic for development time as well as more fecund, both in absolute terms and in terms of fecundity per unit weight. The results suggest that our understanding of the evolutionary forces maintaining sexual size dimorphism in Drosophila will probably benefit from more detailed studies on the correlates of sexual dimorphism within and among Drosophila species, and on the shape of reaction norms for the degree of sexual dimorphism across different levels of ecologically relevant environmental variables.