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Abstract

This report follows the development of systematic solvent screening strategies for the identification of superior pure solvents and introduces techniques for the identification of effective coextractants. Specifically, methods to predict the biocompatibility and extractant capability of solvents are discussed. Biocompatibility is predicted by using heuristic data or the correlations between bioactivity and the logarithm of the partition coefficient of the solvent or the concentration of solvent in the cell membrane. A computer program, known as the extractant screening program or ESP, has been developed to effectively predict the behavior of virtually any product in any solvent/aqueous system. It is demonstrated that a biocompatible yet poor solvent can be mixed with a toxic solvent that has better extractant properties to yield a mixture with improved solvent characteristics that is still biocompatible. The fact that solvents do not mix in an ideal manner is exploited by using ESP to identify solvent mixtures that are still biocompatible at relatively high concentrations of toxic solvent.