Growth, nutrient consumption, and end-product accumulation were quantitated in shake-flask cultures of two insect cell lines, Sf-9 and BTI-EAA, in three different serum-supplemented media. Per cell consumption or production rates were calculated for most medium components analyzed. Glucose was growth-limiting in TNM-FH medium and was the most important single source of organic-C for the cells in all cultures. Cells utilized fructose and maltose but not sucrose. α-Ketoglutarate and malate contributed significantly to the carbon budget of cells in TNM-FH. Lactate generally did not accumulate during growth. Most of the amino acids were consumed by the cells, with the exception of alanine which was produced. Most of the amino acids appeared to be present in adequate supply in the cultures. Glutamate was generally the most rapidly consumed of the amino acids, followed closely by glutamine. Alanine accumulation was correlated with glucose consumption. In Sf-9 cultures, ammonia accumulated only slightly or not at all as long as glucose was present in the medium, and uric acid was detectable at the end of growth and in the stationary phase. Added ammonia up to a concentration of 10 mM did not affect the growth of either cell line. Ammonia and lactate may be of less importance in limiting growth in insect cell cultures than in mammalian cell cultures. A hypothetical outline of the major metabolic pathways of the cultured insect cells is presented on the basis of information obtained here and in the literature.
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