Epoxy Sepabeads: A Novel Epoxy Support for Stabilization of Industrial Enzymes via Very Intense Multipoint Covalent Attachment

Authors

  • Cesar Mateo,

    1. Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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  • Olga Abian,

    1. Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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  • Gloria Fernández-Lorente,

    1. Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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  • Justo Pedroche,

    1. Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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  • Roberto Fernández-Lafuente,

    Corresponding author
    1. Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
    • Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain. Telephone: 34 91 585 48 09. Fax. 34 91 585 47 60
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  • Jose M. Guisan

    1. Departamento de Biocatálisis, Instituto de Catalisis, CSIC, Campus Universidad Autonoma, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain
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Abstract

Sepabeads-EP (a new epoxy support) has been utilized to immobilize-stabilize the enzyme penicillin G acylase (PGA) via multipoint covalent attachment. These supports are very robust and suitable for industrial purposes. Also, the internal geometry of the support is composed by cylindrical pores surrounded by the convex surfaces (this offers a good geometrical congruence for reaction with the enzyme), and it has a very high superficial density of epoxy groups (around 100 μmol/mL). These features should permit a very intense enzyme-support interaction. However, the final stability of the immobilized enzyme is strictly dependent on the immobilization protocol. By using conventional immobilization protocols (neutral pH values, nonblockage of the support) the stability of the immobilized enzyme was quite similar to that achieved using Eupergit C to immobilize the PGA. However, when using a more sophisticated three-step immobilization/stabilization/blockage procedure, the Sepabeads derivative was hundreds-fold more stable than Eupergit C derivatives. The protocol used was as follows: (i) the enzyme was first covalently immobilized under very mild experimental conditions (e.g., pH 7.0 and 20 °C); (ii) the already immobilized enzyme was further incubated under more drastic conditions (higher pH values, long incubation periods, etc.) in order to “facilitate” the formation of new covalent linkages between the immobilized enzyme molecule and the support; (iii) the remaining epoxy groups of the support were blocked with very hydrophilic compounds to stop any additional interaction between the enzyme and the support. This third point was found to be critical for obtaining very stable enzymes: derivatives blocked with mercaptoethanol were much less stable than derivatives blocked with glycine or other amino acids. This was attributed to the better masking of the hydrophobicity of the support by the amino acids (having two charges).

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