The effects of culturing hybridoma cells in a three-dimensional (3-D) poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibrous matrix on cell cycle, apoptosis, metabolism, and monoclonal antibody (MAb) production were evaluated by comparing with two-dimensional (2-D) culturing on microcarrier and multiwell plate surfaces. The percentage of cells in the G1/G0 phase increased during the long-term culturing period of ∼4 weeks. Compared to the 2-D culture systems, cells grown in 3-D matrices had higher MAb productivity for long-term culture. Decreasing serum content in the culture medium increased both MAb productivity and apoptosis. However, the 3-D culture had a greater increase in MAb productivity and a much lower apoptotic rate than the 2-D culture, especially at 0% serum. Most cells in the 3-D fibrous matrix formed large aggregates and were smaller than cells grown on a 2-D surface or in suspension. The smaller cell size allowed cells to survive better in the high-cell-density environment. The fibrous matrix also selectively retained healthy, nonapoptotic cells. These results suggested that the 3-D fibrous matrix contributed to growth arrest, protected cells to better resist low-serum environments, and reduced apoptosis, all of which contributed to the high viable cell density and volumetric MAb productivity in the long-term 3-D culture.