Process modeling involves the use of a set of mathematical equations to represent key physical phenomena involved in the process. An appropriately validated model can be used to predict process behavior with limited experimental data, identify critical ranges for process variables, and guide further process development. Although process modeling is extensively used in the chemical process industries, it has not been widely used in purification unit operations in biotechnology. Recent FDA guidelines encourage the use of process modeling during process development, along with multivariate statistical methods, detailed risk assessment, and other quantifiers of uncertainty. This paper will review recent advances in the modeling of key downstream unit operations: chromatography, filtration, and centrifugation. The focus will be on the application of modeling for industrial applications. Relevant papers presented at a session on this topic at the recent American Chemical Society National Meeting in San Francisco will also be reviewed.