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Abstract

Restenosis is the reobstruction of an artery following interventional procedures such as balloon angioplasty or stenting. Local pharmacotherapeutic approaches using controlled release systems are under investigation to inhibit the regional pathophysiologic process of restenosis. We have been investigating biodegradable nanoparticles (100 ± 39 nm in diameter, mean ± sd) for the local intra-arterial drug delivery. The purpose of this study was to investigate nanoparticle surface modifications (see Table 1) to enhance their arterial uptake. The PLGA (polylactic polyglycolic acid copolymer) nanoparticles were formulated by an oil-in-water emulsion solvent evaporation technique using a 2-aminochromone (U-86983, Upjohn and Pharmacia) (U-86) as a model antiproliferative agent. The various formulations of nanoparticles were evaluated for the arterial wall uptake by using an ex-vivo dog femoral artery model. The selected formulations were then tested in vivo in acute dog femoral artery and pig coronary artery models. The nanoparticles surface modified with a cationic compound, didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB), demonstrated 7–10-fold greater arterial U-86 levels compared to the unmodified nano-particles in different ex-vivo and in-vivo studies. The mean U-86 levels were 10.7 ± 1.7 µg/10 mg (dog) and 6.6 ± 0.6 µg/10 mg (pig) in the artery segments (∼2 cm) which were infused with the nanoparticles. The pig coronary studies further demonstrated that the infusion of nanoparticles with higher U-86 loading reduced the arterial U-86 levels, whereas increasing the nanoparticle concentration in the infusion solutions increased the arterial U-86 levels. The biodistribution studies in pigs following coronary arterial administration of nanoparticles demonstrated disposition of U-86 in the myocardium and distally in the liver and the lung. The mechanism of enhanced arterial uptake of the DMAB surface modified nanoparticles seems to be due to the alteration in the nanoparticle surface charge. The unmodified nanoparticles had a ζ potential of −27.8 ± 0.5 mV (mean ± sem, n = 5), whereas the DMAB modified nanoparticles demonstrated a ζ potential of −22.1 ± 3.2 mV (mean ± sem, n = 5). The adsorption of DMAB to the nanoparticle surface followed the Freundlich isotherm with binding capacity k = 28.1 µg/mg and affinity constant p = 2.33. In conclusion, surface modified nanoparticles have potential applications for intra-arterial drug delivery to localize therapeutic agents in the arterial wall to inhibit restenosis.