• cigarette;
  • adolescent;
  • addiction;
  • sexual abuse;
  • physical assault;
  • witnessed violence;
  • psychopathology;
  • PTSD;
  • depression;
  • risk factors;
  • smoking


A national household probability sample of 4,023 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years was surveyed by telephone via structured clinical interview to determine the impact of familial substance use, sexual and physical assault, witnessed violence, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on risk of smoking. Results indicated that familial substance use increased risk of smoking only for boys and sexual assault or depression increased risk of smoking only for girls. Age, Caucasian ethnicity, and experiencing physical assault or witnessing violence elevated risk of current cigarette use for both genders. By contrast, PTSD per se was not associated with increased risk of smoking, after the effects of other variables were controlled.