The validity of a Traumatic Stress Symptom Checklist (TSSC), which was developed as part of a Screening Instrument for Traumatic Stress in Earthquake Survivors (SITSES), was examined in 130 survivors of the recent earthquake in Turkey. Data were obtained on the TSSC, which consists of 17 DSM-IV posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) items and 6 symptoms of depression. The Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale and the Major Depressive Episode module of the Semistructured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were used for comparison with the TSSC. The results indicated that the TSSC has high internal consistency and satisfactory sensitivity and specificity in predicting the diagnosis of PTSD and major depression. The SITSES appeared to be a useful instrument in screening earthquake survivors for PTSD, major depression, illness severity, and risk factors associated with traumatic stress responses.