• child sexual abuse;
  • sexual revictimization;
  • sexual assault;
  • parental caring;
  • child physical abuse;
  • witnessing domestic violence;
  • childhood trauma


This study examined whether parental caring provided a buffer against the revictimization effect. Nine hundred and seventy-four undergraduate women provided information about child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and whether they witnessed violence between their parents during childhood. They also reported whether they had ever been the victim of sexual assault in adulthood, and offered their perceptions of the degree of care they received as a child from each parent. Results indicated that women who had been sexually abused in childhood were twice as likely to be sexually assaulted in adulthood and that women with 2 or more types of childhood trauma were 3 times as likely to be sexually revictimized. Parental caring was not found to buffer against the revictimization effect.