• mental health;
  • Kosovo;
  • PTSD;
  • hatred;
  • social functioning


A cross-sectional cluster sample survey was conducted in June 2000 in Kosovo to assess the prevalence of mental health problems associated with traumatic experiences, feelings of hatred and revenge, and the level of social functioning among Kosovar Albanians approximately 1 year after the end of the war. Findings of the second cross-sectional survey were compared with those from our 1999 mental health survey in Kosovo. Included in the survey were 1399 Kosovar Albanians aged 15 years or older living in 593 randomly selected households across Kosovo. Twenty-five percent of respondents reported PTSD symptoms, compared with 17.1% in 1999. The MOS-20 social functioning score improved to 69.8 from 29.5 in 1999. In the 2000 survey 54% of men felt hatred toward the Serbs, compared with 88.7% in 1999.