During the Apollo Program, NASA funded studies for future lunar surface activities beyond the initial landings. After rejection of the Space Task Group Report in 1969 by the Nixon Administration and after truncation of the Apollo landing sequence, NASA shut down internal work on permanent lunar facilities.
A decade later, a community of lunar base advocates arose, consisting largely of people outside the traditional NASA funding base. Following the seminal 1984 Conference on Lunar Bases and Space Activities of the 21st Century, the Aerospace Division of the American Society of Civil Engineers began a continuing series of biennial specialty conferences under the title of Engineering, Construction, and Operations in Space. The conferences are better known as Space88, Space90, and so forth, including the upcoming Space2000. The proceedings contain papers by professionals who work on terrestrial infrastructure and who apply their experience to lunar scenarios.