Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide methods passing milestones toward paleo-altimetry



Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides (TCN) such as 3He, 10Be, 14C, 21Ne, 26Al, and 36Cl are produced at and below Earth's surface in minerals that are exposed to secondary cosmic radiation—primarily fast and slow neutrons and muons. TCN measured in specific mineral phases or multi-mineralogic rocks of any lithology have most commonly been used to directly determine the duration of landscape exposure. Examples include dating ancient bedrock landforms, glacial erratics and glacierized bedrock, alluvial fans and fluvial terraces, fault scarps, fault line scarps, precariously perched boulders, lavas and cinder, desert pavement and pedogenic carbonates, landslides, emerged shore-lines, retreating cliffs, and aboriginal rock art.