Microbial transport in the subsurface environment has been of interest for decades due to concerns about contamination of water supplies by pathogenic bacteria or viruses. More recently, research has demonstrated that many bacteria can beneficially serve to degrade or immobilize other environmental contaminants. A research program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently investigating the potential for enhancing and targeting bacterial transport to improve bioremediation efforts. Of particular interest to DOE is the potential for bioremediation of metals and radionuclides that are common to many of their former nuclear materials processing facility sites.