Paleoceanography the branch of Earth science that studies the history and evolution of the ocean, has matured dramatically within the past few decades. The improved recovery of marine archives such as sediments and corals, the development of new measurement tools and proxies for inferring past ocean properties, the increased sophistication of sampling and interpretive schemes, and a continuing trend toward data-model integration have led to major advances in our understanding of ocean history and the integral role that the oceans play in the climate system. Indeed, as the title of this book implies, it has become increasingly evident that we must learn to read and comprehend the ocean's record if we are to fully understand what future climate may hold in store for us.