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Intensive research in stochastic subsurface hydrology over the past 2 decades has significantly improved our understanding of fieldscale transport in heterogeneous media and has significantly changed how we think about variability and uncertainty However, these studies have not translated into much impact on how predictions are made in practical groundwater modeling studies. Most models used in applications still provide only deterministic predictions that essentially ignore small-scale heterogeneity with no accompanying information on prediction uncertainty. It is reasonable to ask why most practical models don't provide stochastic field-scale prediction even though there is a consensus that heterogeneity has a dramatic impact on plume migration and there is a well-established theory that deals with this topic.