A comprehensive treatment of the motions in the atmosphere and oceans of the Earth requires a foundation constructed from the relevant principles that describe the transfers of matter and energy in fluids. The scales of processes that significantly affect the flows of matter and energy range from molecular to planetary All three phases of matter play significant roles in the determination of the magnitude and efficiency of energy transfers at both the smallest and largest scales. In books on thermodynamics, the majority of the text often deals with the atmosphere with little mention of the oceans or ice on the surface of the Earth. The authors of this book, Thermodynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans, attempt to remedy that situation and to provide a balanced treatment of the thermodynamics of the atmosphere, oceans, and surface ice. In many instances, the discussion of a particular thermodynamic process begins at the molecular level and proceeds to larger scales.