SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Alif, A., P. Boule, Photochemistry and environment, XIV, Phototransformation of nitrophenols induced by excitation of nitrite and nitrate ions, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem., 59, 357367, 1991.
  • Alif, A., P. Boule, J. Lemaire, Comportement photochimique du nitro-4 phonol en solution aqueuse, Chemosphere, 16, 22132223, 1987.
  • Alif, A., P. Boule, J. Lemaire, Photochemistry and environment, XII, Phototransformation of 3-nitrophenol in aqueous solution, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem., 50, 331342, 1990.
  • Alif, A., J.-F. Pilichowski, P. Boule, Photochemistry and environment, XIII, Phototransformation of 2-nitrophenol in aqueous solution, J. Photochem. Photobiol. A Chem, 59, 209219, 1991.
  • Ambach, W., M. Blumthaler, Characteristics of solar UV irradiance, Meteorol. Z., 3, 211220, 1994.
  • Atkinson, R., D. L. Baulch, R. A. Cox, R. F. Hampson Jr., J. A. Kerr, M. J. Rossi, J. Troe, Evaluated kinetic, photochemical, and heterogeneous data for atmospheric chemistry, Supplement V, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 26, 5211011, 1997.
  • Beyer, K. D., A. R. Ravishankara, E. R. Lovejoy, Measurements of UV refractive indices and densities of H2SO4/H2O and H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solutions, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1451914524, 1996.
  • Blumthaler, M., W. Ambach, W. Rehwald, Solar UV-A and UV-B radiation fluxes at two Alpine stations at different altitudes, Theor. Appl. Meteorol., 46, 3944, 1992.
  • Blumthaler, M., A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, M. Huber, B. Mayer, Simultaneous spectroradiometry: A study of solar UV irradiance at two altitudes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 21, 28052808, 1994.
  • Chow, J. C., J. G. Watson, E. M. Fujita, Z. Lu, D. R. Lawson, Temporal and spatial variations of PM2.5 and PM10 aerosol in the Southern California Air Quality Study, Atmos. Environ., 28, 20612080, 1994.
  • Cleaver, B., E. Rhodes, A. R. Ubbelohde, Studies of phase transformations in nitrates and nitrites, I, Changes in ultra-violet absorption spectra on melting, Proc. R. Soc. London, 276, 437453, 1963.
  • Cronn, D. R., R. J. Charlson, R. L. Knights, A. L. Crittenden, B. R. Appel, A survey of the molecular nature of primary and secondary components of particles in urban air by high-resolution mass spectrometry, Atmos. Environ., 11, 929937, 1977.
  • Dean, J. A., Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1992.
  • Dickerson, R. R., S. Kondragunta, G. Stenchikov, K. L. Civerolo, B. G. Doddridge, B. N. Holben, The impact of aerosols on solar UV radiation and photochemical smog, Science, 278, 827830, 1997.
  • Finlayson-Pitts, B. J., J. N. Pitts Jr., Atmospheric Chemistry: Fundamentals and Experimental Techniques, John Wiley, New York, 1986.
  • Forster, P. M. de F., Modeling ultraviolet radiation at the earth's surface, I, The sensitivity of ultraviolet irradiances to atmospheric changes, J. Appl. Meteorol., 34, 24122425, 1995.
  • Foster, V. G., Determination of the refractive index dispersion of liquid nitrobenzene in the visible and ultraviolet, J. Phys. D. Appl. Phys., 25, 525529, 1992.
  • Gery, M. W., G. Z. Whitten, J. P. Killus, M. C. Dodge, A photochemical kinetics mechanism for urban and regional scale computer modeling, J. Geophys. Res., 94, 1292512956, 1989.
  • Gillette, D. A., E. M. Patterson Jr., J. M. Prospero, M. L. Jackson, Soil aerosols, Aerosol Effects on ClimateS. G. Jennings, Univ. of Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1993.
  • Grosjean, D., Reactions of o-cresol and nitrocresol with NOx in sunlight and with ozone-nitrogen dioxide mixtures in the dark, Environ. Sci. Technol., 19, 968974, 1985.
  • Hirayama, K., Handbook of Ultraviolet and Visible Absorption Spectra of Organic Compounds, Plenum, New York, 1967.
  • Jackson, J. D., Classical Electrodynamics, John Wiley, New York, 1975.
  • Jacobson, M. Z., Developing, coupling, and applying a gas, aerosol, transport, and radiation model to study urban and regional air pollution, Ph.D. thesis,Univ. of Calif.,Los Angeles,1994.
  • Jacobson, M. Z., Development and application of a new air pollution modeling system, part II, Aersosol module structure and design, Atmos. Environ., 31, 131144, 1997a.
  • Jacobson, M. Z., Development and application of a new air pollution modeling system, part III, Aerosol-phase simulations, Atmos. Environ., 31, 587608, 1997b.
  • Jacobson, M. Z., Numerical techniques to solve condensational and dissolutional growth equations when growth is coupled to reversible reactions, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 27, 491498, 1997c.
  • Jacobson, M. Z., Improvement of SMVGEAR II on vector and scalar machines through absolute error tolerance control, Atmos. Environ., 32, 791796, 1998a.
  • Jacobson, M. Z., Fundamentals of Atmospheric Modeling, Cambridge Univ. Press, New York, 1998b.
  • Jacobson, M. Z., Studying the effects of aerosols on vertical photolysis rate coefficient and temperature profiles over an urban airshed, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 1059310604, 1998c.
  • Jacobson, M. Z., Studying the effects of calcium and magnesium on size-distributed nitrate and ammonium with EQUISOLV II, Atmos. Environ., 1998d.
  • Jacobson, M. Z., R. Lu, R. P. Turco, O. B. Toon, Development and application of a new air pollution modeling system, part I, Gas-phase simulations, Atmos. Environ., 30B, 19391963, 1996.
  • Kato, S., T. P. Ackerman, E. E. Clothiaux, J. H. Mather, G. G. Mace, M. L. Wesely, F. Murcray, J. Michalsky, Uncertainties in modeled and measured clear-sky surface shortwave irradiances, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 2588125898, 1997.
  • Krekov, G. M., Models of atmospheric aerosols, Aerosol Effects on ClimateS. G. Jennings, Univ. of Ariz. Press, Tucson, 1993.
  • Leuenberger, C., J. Czuczwa, J. Tremp, W. Giger, Nitrated phenols in rain: Atmospheric occurrence of phytotoxic pollutants, Chemosphere, 17, 511515, 1988.
  • Li, S. -M. K., A. M. Macdonald, J. W. Strapp, Y.-N. Lee, X.-L. Zhou, Chemical and physical characterizations of atmospheric aerosols over southern California, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 21,34121,353, 1997.
  • , Handbook of Data on Common Organic CompoundsD. R. Lide, G. W. A. Milne, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., 1995.
  • Lipczynska-Kochany, E., Degradation of nitrobenzene and nitrophenols in homogeneous aqueous solution. Direct photolysis versus photolysis in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and the Fenton reagent, Water Pollut. Res. J. Can., 27, 97122, 1992.
  • Liousse, C., J. E. Penner, C. Chuang, J. J. Walton, H. Eddleman, H. Cachier, A global three-dimensional model study of carbonaceous aerosols, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1941119432, 1996.
  • Liu, S. C., S. A. McKeen, S. Madronich, Effect of anthropogenic aerosols on biologically active ultraviolet radiation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 22652268, 1991.
  • Lu, R., R. P. Turco, Air pollutant transport in a coastal environment, II, Three-dimensional simulations over Los Angeles basin, Atmos. Environ., 29, 14991518, 1995.
  • Lu, Y., M. A. K. Khalil, The distribution of solar radiation in the earth's atmosphere: The effects of ozone, aerosols, and clouds, Chemosphere, 32, 739758, 1996.
  • Madronich, S., Photodissociation in the atmosphere, 1, Actinic flux and the effects of ground reflections and clouds, J. Geophys. Res., 92, 97409752, 1987.
  • Mylonas, D. T., D. T. Allen, S. H. Ehrman, S. E. Pratsinis, The source and size distributions of organonitrates in Los Angeles aerosol, Atmos. Environ., 25A, 28552861, 1991.
  • Nojima, K., A. Kawaguchi, T. Ohya, S. Kanno, M. Hirobe, Studies on photochemical reactions of air pollutants, X, Identification of nitrophenols in suspended particulates, Chem. Pharmacol. Bull., 31, 10471051, 1983.
  • Novakov, T., D. A. Hegg, P. V. Hobbs, Airborne measurements of carbonaceous aersosols on the East Coast of the United States, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 3002330030, 1997.
  • O'Brien, R. J., J. H. Crabtree, J. R. Holmes, M. C. Hoggan, A. H. Bockian, Formation of photochemical aerosol from hydrocarbons, Environ. Sci. Technol., 9, 577582, 1975.
  • Pandis, S. N., R. A. Harley, G. R. Cass, J. H. Seinfeld, Secondary organic aerosol formation and transport, Atmos. Environ., 26A, 22692282, 1992.
  • Pankow, J. F., L. M. Isabelle, W. E. Asher, T. J. Kristensen, M. E. Peterson, Organic compounds in Los Angeles and Portland rain: Identities, concentrations and operative scavenging mechanisms, Precipitation Scavenging, Dry Deposition and ResuspensionH. R. Pruppacher, R. G. Semonin, W. G. N. Slinn, 403, Elsevier, New York, 1983.
  • Peterson, J. T., E. C. Flowers, J. H. Rudisill, Urban-rural solar radiation and atmospheric turbidity measurements in the Los Angeles basin, J. Appl. Meteorol., 17, 15951609, 1978.
  • Perkampus, H.-H., UV-VIS Atlas of Organic Compounds2nd ed., Weinheim, New York, 1992.
  • Pilinis, C., J. H. Seinfeld, Development and evaluation of an Eulerian photochemical gas-aerosol model, Atmos. Environ., 22, 19852001, 1988.
  • Reiter, R., K. Munzert, R. Sladkovic, Results of 5-year concurrent recordings of global, diffuse, and UV-radiation at three levels (700, 1800, and 3000 m a.s.l.) in the northern Alps, Arch. Meteorol. Geophys. Bioklimatol., Ser. B., 30, 128, 1982.
  • Repapis, C. C., H. T. Mantis, A. G. Paliatsos, C. M. Philandras, A. F. Bais, C. Meleti, Case study of UV-B modification during episodes of urban air pollution, Atmos. Environ., 32, 22032208, 1998.
  • Rippen, G., E. Zietz, R. Frank, T. Knacker, W. Klopffer, Do airborne nitrophenols contribute to forrest decline?, Environ. Technol. Lett., 8, 475482, 1987.
  • Rogge, W. F., L. M. Hildemann, M. A. Mazurek, G. R. Cass, B. R. T. Simoneit, Sources of fine organic aerosol, 1, Charbroilers and meat cooking operations, Environ. Sci. Technol., 25, 11121125, 1991.
  • Rogge, W. F., M. A. Mazurek, L. M. Hildemann, G. R. Cass, Quantification of urban organic aerosols at a molecular level: Identification, abundance, and seasonal variation, Atmos. Environ., 27A, 13091330, 1993a.
  • Rogge, W. F., L. M. Hildemann, M. A. Mazurek, G. R. Cass, Sources of fine organic aerosol, 2, Noncatalyst and catalyst-equipped automobiles and heavy-duty diesel trucks, Environ. Sci. Technol., 27, 636651, 1993b.
  • Rogge, W. F., L. M. Hildemann, M. A. Mazurek, G. R. Cass, Sources of fine organic aerosol, 3, Road dust, tire debris, and organometallic brake lining dust: Roads as sources and sinks, Environ. Sci. Technol., 27, 18921904, 1993c.
  • Rogge, W. F., L. M. Hildemann, M. A. Mazurek, G. R. Cass, B. R. T. Simoneit, Sources of fine organic aerosol, 6, Cigarette smoke in the urban atmosphere, Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 13751388, 1994.
  • Ruggaber, A. R., R. Dlugi, T. Nakajima, Modelling radiation quantities and photolysis frequencies in the troposphere, J. Atmos. Chem., 18, 171210, 1994.
  • Saxena, P., L. M. Hildemann, Water-soluble organics in atmospheric particles: A critical review of the literature and application of thermodynamics to identify candidate compounds, J. Atmos. Chem., 24, 57109, 1996.
  • Schuetzle, D., D. Cronn, A. L. Crittenden, R. J. Charlson, Molecular composition of secondary aerosol and its possible origin, Environ. Sci. Technol., 9, 838845, 1975.
  • Sokolik, I., A. Andronova, C. Johnson, Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosols, Atmos. Environ., 27A, 24952502, 1993.
  • Sommer, L., Analytical Absorption Spectrophotometry in the Visible and Ultraviolet, Elsevier, New York, 1989.
  • Tang, I., Thermodynamic and optical properties of mixed-salt aerosols of atmospheric importance, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 18831893, 1997.
  • Toon, O. B., T. P. Ackerman, Algorithms for the calculation of scattering by stratified spheres, Appl. Opt., 20, 36573660, 1981.
  • Trost, B., J. Stutz, U. Platt, UV-absorption cross sections of a series of moncyclic aromatic compounds, Atmos. Environ., 31, 39994008, 1997.
  • vanWeele, M., P. G. Duynkerke, Effects of clouds on the photodissociation of NO2: Observation and modelling, J. Atmos. Chem., 16, 231255, 1993.
  • Varotsos, C. A., G. J. Chronopouos, S. Katsikis, N. K. Sakellariou, Further evidence of the role of air pollution on solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the ground, Int. J. Remote Sens., 16, 18831886, 1995.
  • Venkataraman, C. J. M. Lyons, S. K. Friedlander, Size distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and elemental carbon, 1, Sampling, measurement methods, and source characterization, Environ. Sci. Technol., 28, 555582, 1994.
  • Wakimoto, R. M., J. L. McElroy, Lidar observation of elevated pollution layers over Los Angeles, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 25, 15831599, 1986.
  • Wang, P., J. Lenoble, Comparison between measurements and modeling of UV-B irradiance for clear sky: a case study, Appl. Opt., 33, 39643971, 1994.
  • Wendisch, M., S. Mertes, A. Ruggaber, T. Nakajima, Vertical profiles of aerosol and radiation and the influence of a temperature inversion: Measurements and radiative transfer calculations, J. Appl. Meteorol., 35, 17031715, 1996.
  • Wenny, B. N., J. S. Schafer, J. J. DeLuisi, V. K. Saxena, W. F. Barnard, I. V. Petropavlovskikh, A. J. Vergamini, A study of regional aerosol radiative properties and effects on ultraviolet-B radiation, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 1708317097, 1998.
  • Zeng, J., R. McKenzie, K. Stamnes, M. Wineland, J. Rosen, Measured UV spectra compared with discrete ordinate method simulations, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 2301923030, 1994.