In situ observations of the onset of hydrothermal discharge during the 1998 Submarine Eruption of Axial Volcano, Juan de Fuca Ridge
Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.
Geophysical Research Letters
Volume 26, Issue 23, pages 3445–3448, 1 December 1999
How to Cite
- Issue published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 7 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Accepted: 31 JUL 1999
- Manuscript Received: 14 APR 1999
A volcanic eruption at the summit of Axial Volcano on January 25,1998, instantaneously created extensive and vigorous hydrothermal discharge. Moorings 2 km apart along the eruption fissure recorded temperature increases of ∼0.6°C up to 115 m above bottom within hours of initial seismic activity. Water temperatures at the mooring sites remained high for about 5 days, then declined steadily over the next 2 weeks. A response cruise 18 days after the eruption found hydrothermal temperature anomalies of ∼0.1°C over the eruption site, and a more intense and much thicker plume 20 km downstream of the eruption. We estimate the steady-state heat flux required to produce this distal plume, evidence of discharge conditions perhaps 1–13 days after the eruption, as 60–230 GW. The Axial eruption thus produced the largest vent field heat flux yet measured, but these high levels lasted less than 3 weeks.