A three-dimensional P wave velocity model for the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) has been developed using a nonlinear travel time tomography method. The inversion involved 709 earthquakes recorded by digital, three-component Portable Array for Numerical Data Acquisition stations deployed in the NMSZ over the time period 1989 through 1992. Analysis of ray coverage and inversion of a synthetic data set showed that the model has high resolution to a depth of 11 km. Low-velocity anomalies correlate with the prominent northwest and northeast trending arms of seismicity. Lowest-velocity anomalies (−8%) occur at the intersection of these arms and are associated with shallow seismicity and a high swarm rate. These low-velocity regions are interpreted to be the result of increased fluid pressure associated with structurally disrupted rocks beneath the Blytheville-Pascola arch complex. Small regions of high velocity, limited to the upper few km of the crust, correlate with gravity and magnetic anomalies and are interpreted to be igneous intrusions. High-velocity anomalies also parallel the edges of the Reelfoot rift margin and probably are associated with crystalline Precambrian rocks that form the margin of the Reelfoot rift graben. Most earthquakes are associated with low-velocity regions and avoid regions of high velocity.