• Auber, J.-C., A. Bibault, J.-M. Rigal, Characterization of multipath on land and sea at GPS frequencies7th International Technology Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of NavigationSalt Lake City, UtahSept. 23, 1994.
  • Beckmann, P., A. Spizzichino, The Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves From Rough Surfaces, Artech House, Norwood, Mass, 1987.
  • Brown, G. S., Backscattering from a Gaussian distributed perfectly conducting rough surface, IEEE Trans. Antennae Propag., AP-26, 472482, 1978.
  • Cox, C. S., W. Munk, Statistics of the sea surface derived from sun glitter, J. Mar. Res., 13, 198225, 1954.
  • Cox, C. S., W. Munk, Some problems in optical oceanography, J. Mar. Res., 14, 6378, 1955.
  • Duan, J., et al., GPS meteorology: Direct estimation of the absolute value of precipitable water, J. Appl. Meteorol., 35, 830838, 1996.
  • Garrison, J. L., S. J. Katzberg, M. I. Hill, Effect of sea roughness on bistatically scattered range coded signals from the Global Positioning System, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 22572260, 1998.
  • Goodberlet, M. A., C. T. Swift, J. C. Wilkerson, Ocean surface wind speed measurements of Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), IEEETrans. Geosci. Electron., GE-28, 832828, 1990.
  • Hollinger, J. P., Passive microwave measurements of sea surface roughness, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., GE-9, 165169, 1971.
  • Katzberg, S. J., J. L. Garrison, Utilizing GPS to determine ionospheric delay over the ocean, NASA Tech. Memo.TM-4750, 1996.
  • Katzberg, S. J., N. S. Coffee, J. L. Garrison, andH. R. Kowitz, Method and system for monitoring sea state using GPS, patent application,U.S. Patent and Trademark Office,Arlington, Va.,1998.
  • Klein, L. A., C. T. Swift, An imporoved model of the dielectric constant of sea water at microwave frequencies, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., OE-2, 104111, 1977.
  • Komjathy, A., V. Zavorotny, P. Axelrad, G. Born, J. Garrison, GPS signal scattering from sea surface: Comparison between experimental data and theoretical modelFifth International Conference on Remote Sensing for Marine and Coastal EnvironmentsEnviron. Res. Ins. of Mich. InternationalSan Diego, Calif.October 5–7, 1998.
  • Martin-Neira, M., A passive reflectometry and interferometry system (PARIS): application to ocean altimetry, ESA J., 17, 331355, 1993.
  • Masuko, H., K. Okamoto, M. Shimada, S. Niwa, Measurement of microwave backscattering signatures of ocean surface using X band and Ku band airborne scatterometers, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 1306513083, 1986.
  • Monahan, E. C., I. G. O'Muircheartaigh, Whitecaps and the passive remote sensing of the ocean surface, Int. J. Remote Sens., 7, 627642, 1986.
  • Monahan, E. C., M. Lu, Acoustically relevant bubble assemblages and their dependence on meteorological parameters, IEEE J. Oceanic Eng., 15, 340349, 1990.
  • Nghiem, S. V., F. Li, G. Neumann, The dependence of ocean backscatter at Ku Band on oceanic and atmospheric parameters, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., GE-35, 581600, 1997.
  • Parkinson, B. W., J. J. Spilker, P. Axelrad, P. Enge, Global positioning system: Theory and applications, , 1 and 2, Am. Ins. of Aeronaut. and Astronaut., Washington, D. C., 1996.
  • Petty, G. W., On the response of the special sensor microwave/imager to the marine environment—Implications for atmospheric parameter retrievals, Ph.D. dissertation,Dep. of Atmos. Sci., Univ. of Wash.,Seattle,1990.
  • Shaw, J. A., J. H. Churnside, Scanning-laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics, Appl. Opt., 36, 42024213, 1997.
  • Spencer, M. W., C. Wu, D. Long, Tradeoffs in the design of a spaceborne scanning pencil beam scatterometer: application to SeaWinds, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., GE-35, 115126, 1997.
  • Wilheit, T. T., A model for the microwave emissivity of the ocean's surface as a function of wind speed, IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., GE-17, 244249, 1979.