SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Atlas, E. L., B. A. Ridley, The Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment: Introduction, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 1453114541, 1996.
  • Atlas, E. L., B. A. Ridley, G. Hübler, J. G. Walega, M. A. Carroll, D. D. Montzka, B. Huebert, R. Norton, F. Grahek, S. Schauffler, Partitioning and budget of NOy species during Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 1044910462, 1992.
  • Atkinson, R., D. L. Baulch, R. F. Hampson Jr., J. A. Kerr, J. Troe, Evaluated kinetic and photochemical data for atmospheric chemistry supplement IV, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 21, 11251568, 1992.
  • Baltensperger, U., H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Lugauer, M. Schwikowski, P. Seibert, E. Weingartner, Aerosol climatology at the high-alpine site Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 1970719715, 1997.
  • Bauguitte, S., Four-channel chemiluminescence analyzer-NOxy system, Testing Atmospheric Chemistry in Anticyclones (TACIA) Final ReportO. Hor, et al., 2126European Commission, Brussels, 1998.
  • Blatter, A., A. Neftel, P. K. Dasgupta, P. K. Simon, A combined wet effluent denuder and mist chamber system for deposition measurements of NH3, NH4+, HNO3 and NO3-, Physico-chemical Behaviour of Atmospheric PollutantsG. Angeletti, G. Restelli, 767772, European Commission, Brussels, 1994.
  • Bollinger, M. J., R. E. Sievers, D. W. Fahey, F. C. Fehsenfeld, Conversion of nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, and n-propyl nitrate to nitric oxide by gold-catalyzed reduction with carbon monoxide, Anal. Chem., 55, 19801986, 1983.
  • Cárdenas, L. M., J. F. Austin, R. A. Burgess, K. C. Clemitshaw, S. Dorling, S. A. Penkett, R. M. Harrison, Correlations between CO, NOy, O3 and non-methane hydrocarbons and their relationships with meteorology during winter 1993 on the North Norfolk Coast, U. K., Atmos. Environ., 32, 33393351, 1998.
  • Crutzen, P. J., Photochemical reactions initiated by and influencing ozone in unpolluted tropospheric air, Tellus, 26, 4857, 1974.
  • Crutzen, P. J., The role of NO and NO2 in the chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere, Ann. Rev. Earth Planet. Sci., 7, 443472, 1979.
  • Doddridge, B. G., R. R. Dickerson, J. Z. Holland, J. N. Cooper, R. G. Wardell, O. Poulida, J. G. Watkins, Observation of tropospheric trace gases and meteorology in rural Virginia using an unattended monitoring system: Hurricane Hugo (1989), a case study, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 93419360, 1991.
  • Fahey, D. W., C. S. Eubank, G. Hubler, F. C. Fehsenfeld, Evaluation of a catalytic reduction technique for the measurement of total reactive odd-nitrogen NOy, in the atmosphere, J. Atmos. Chem., 3, 435468, 1985.
  • Fahey, D. W., G. Hubler, D. D. Parrish, E. J. Williams, R. B. Norton, B. A. Ridley, H. B. Singh, S. C. Liu, F. C. Fehsenfeld, Reactive nitrogen species in the troposphere: Measurements of NO, NO2, HNO3, particulate nitrate, peroxacetyl nitrate (PAN), O3 and total reactive odd nitrogen (NOy) at Niwot Ridge, Colorado, J. Geophys. Res., 91, 97819793, 1986.
  • Feigl, C., Aufbau und Charakterisierung eines Messsystems für NO, NO2 und NOy: Laboruntersuchungen und Einsatz in der unteren arktischen Stratosphäre, Ph.D. thesis,University of Munich,Köln, Germany,1998.
  • Fischer, H., et al., Trace gas measurements during the oxidizing capacity of the tropospheric atmosphere campaign 1993 at Izaña, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 1350513518, 1998.
  • Gäggeler, H. W., U. Baltensperger, M. Emmenegger, D. T. Jost, A. Schmidt-Ott, P. Haller, M. Hoffmann, The epiphaniometer, a new device for continuous aerosol monitoring, J. Aerosol Sci., 20, 557564, 1989.
  • Hering, A. M., J. Staehelin, U. Baltensperger, A. S. H. Prévôt, G. L. Kok, R. D. Schillawski, A. Waldvogel, Airborne measurements of atmospheric aerosol particles and trace gases during photosmog episodes over the Swiss Plateau and the Southern Pre-Alpine Region, Atmos. Environ., 32, 33813392, 1998.
  • Jaeglé, L., D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. J. Weinheimer, B. A. Ridley, T. L. Campos, G. W. Sachse, D. E. Hagen, Sources and chemistry of NOx in the upper troposphere over the United States, Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 17051708, 1998.
  • Jaffe, D. A., R. E. Honrath, J. A. Herring, S.-M. Li, J. D. Kahl, Measurements of nitrogen oxides at Barrow, Alaska, during spring: Evidence for regional and northern hemisphere sources of pollution, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 73957405, 1991.
  • Kleinman, L., Y.-N. Lee, S. R. Springston, L. Nunnermacker, X. Zhou, R. Brown, K. Hallock, P. Klotz, D. Leahy, J. H. Lee, L. Newman, Ozone formation at a rural site in the southeastern United States, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 34693482, 1994.
  • Lavanchy, V. M. H., H. W. Gäggeler, S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, Elemental carbon (EC) and black carbon (BC) measurements with a thermal method and an aethalometer at the high-alpine research station Jungfraujoch, Atmos. Environ., 33, 27592769, 1999.
  • Liang, J., L. W. Horowitz, D. J. Jacob, Y. Wang, A. M. Fiore, J. A. Logan, G. M. Gardner, J. W. Munger, Seasonal budget of reactive nitrogen species and ozone over the United States, and export fluxes to the global atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 1343513450, 1998.
  • Lugauer, M., Vertical transport of atmospheric trace species in the Alps, Ph.D. thesis,Paul Scherrer Institut,Villigen, Switzerland,1998.
  • Lugauer, M., U. Baltensperger, M. Furger, H. W. Gäggeler, D. T. Jost, M. Schwikowski, H. Wanner, Aerosol transport to the high alpine sites Jungfraujoch (3454 m asl) and Colle Gnifetti (4452 m asl), Tellus, Ser. B., 50B, 7692, 1998.
  • Neuman, J. A., L. G. Huey, T. B. Ryerson, D. W. Fahey, Study of inlet materials for sampling atmospheric nitric acid, Environ. Sci. Technol., 33, 11331136, 1999.
  • Nyeki, S., U. Baltensperger, I. Colbeck, D. T. Jost, E. Weingartner, H. W. Gäggeler, The Jungfraujoch high-alpine research station (3454 m) as a background clean continental site for the measurement of aerosol parameters, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 60976107, 1998.
  • Olszyna, K. J., E. M. Bailey, R. Simonaitis, J. F. Meagher, O3 and NOy relationships at a rural site, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 1455714563, 1994.
  • Pandis, S. N., U. Baltensperger, J. K. Wolfenbarger, J. H. Seinfeld, Inversion of aerosol data from the epiphaniometer, J. Aerosol Sci., 22, 417428, 1991.
  • Parrish, D. D., et al., The total reactive oxidized nitrogen levels and partitioning between the individual species at six rural sites in eastern North America, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 29272939, 1993.
  • Ridley, B. A., et al., Ratios of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active nitrogen observed during aircraft flights over eastern Pacific ocean and continental United States, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 1017910192, 1990.
  • Roberts, J. M., Reactive odd-nitrogen (NOy) in the atmosphere, Composition, Chemistry and Climate of the AtmosphereH. B. Singh, 176215, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1995.
  • Rogak, S. N., U. Baltensperger, R. C. Flagan, Measurements of mass transfer to agglomerate Aerosol, Aerosol Sci. Technol., 14, 447458, 1991.
  • Sandholm, S. T., et al., Summertime tropospheric observations related to NxOy distributions and partitioning over Alaska: Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition 3A, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 1648116509, 1992.
  • Sandholm, S. T., et al., Summertime partitioning and budget of NOy compounds in the troposphere over Alaska and Canada: ABLE 3B, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 18371861, 1994.
  • Schuepp, M., Witterungsklimatologie der Schweiz, Band III, in GermanBeilage zu den Annalen 1978, 94Swiss Meteorol. Inst., Zurich, Switzerland, 1979.
  • Simon, P. K., P. K. Dasgupta, Continuous automated measurement of gaseous nitrous and nitric acids and particulate nitrite and nitrate, Environ. Sci. Technol., 29, 15341541, 1995.
  • Singh, H. B., et al., Peroxyacetyl nitrate measurements during CITE 2: Atmospheric distribution and precursor relationship, J. Geophys. Res., 95, 1016310178, 1990.
  • Singh, H. B., D. Herlth, D. O'Hara, K. Zahnle, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, R. Talbot, P. J. Crutzen, M. A. Kanakidou, Relationship of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active and total odd nitrogen at northern high latitudes: Influence of reservoir species on NOx and O3, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 1652316530, 1992.
  • Singh, H. B., D. Herlth, D. O'Hara, K. Zahnle, J. D. Bradshaw, S. T. Sandholm, R. Talbot, G. L. Gregory, G. W. Sachse, D. R. Blake, S. C. Wofsy, Summertime distribution of PAN and other reactive nitrogen species in the northern high latitude of eastern Canada, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 18211835, 1994.
  • Thakur, A. N., H. B. Singh, P. Mariani, Y. Chen, Y. Wang, D. J. Jacob, G. Brasseur, J.-F. Müller, M. Lawrence, Distribution of reactive nitrogen species in the remote free troposphere: data and model comparison, Atmos. Environ., 33, 14031422, 1999.
  • Thompson, A. M., H. B. Singh, R. W. Stewart, T. L. Kucsera, Y. Kondo, A Monte Carlo study of upper tropospheric reactive nitrogen during the Pacific Explotary Mission in Western Pacific Ocean (PEM-West B), J. Geophys. Res., 102, 2843728446, 1997.
  • Wang, T., et al., Ground-based measurements of NOx and total oxidized nitrogen (NOy) at Sable Island, Nova Scotia, during the NARE 1993 summer intensive, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 2899129004, 1996.
  • Wang, Y., J. A. Logan, D. J. Jacob, Global simulation of tropospheric O3-NOx-hydrocarbon chemistry, 2, Model evaluation and global ozone budget, J. Geophys. Res., 103, 1072710755, 1998.
  • Wanner, H., E. Salvisberg, R. Rickli, M. Schuepp, 50 years of Alpine Weather Statistics (AWS), Meteorol. Z., 7, 99111, 1998.
  • Weingartner, E., S. Nyeki, U. Baltensperger, Seasonal and diurnal variation of aerosol size distributions (10 < D < 750 nm) at a high-alpine site (Jungfraujoch 3580 m asl), J. Geophys. Res., 104, 2680926820, 1999.
  • Williams, E. J., J. M. Roberts, K. Baumann, S. B. Bertman, S. Buhr, R. B. Norton, F. C. Fehsenfeld, Variations in NOy composition at Idaho Hill, Colorado, J. Geophys. Res., 102, 62976314, 1997.
  • Zellweger, C., M. Ammann, P. Hofer, U. Baltensperger, NOy speciation with a combined wet effluent diffusion denuder-aerosol collector coupled to ion chromatography, Atmos. Environ., 33, 11311140, 1999.